Despite all efforts of whitewashing the contribution of India to world civilization by the modern ‘western’ world, truth has its way of being unravelled.

Centuries of efforts have failed miserably to establish the Aryan invasion theory and Aryan migration theory and that has shattered other assumptions related to the of Indo-European languages. Stephen Oppenheimer has elegantly depicted the migration of human race from Africa to India and beyond in Journey of mankind

It is now genetically proven that Australian aborigines migrated from India 4000 yrs ago and the Romani people (Roma, Europe’s largest minorities of 11 million people) migrated from India to Europe 1500 yrs ago.

 

American cows have Indian origins, scientists find.

 

Subodh Varma, TNN Mar 26, 2013, 03.06PM IST, NEW DELHI.

Some famous cow breeds of the Americas, including the iconic Texas Longhorn, have descended from Indian ancestors, a new genetic study reveals.

Indian cows traveled to East Africa, then mixed with local cattle populations up to the North African coast. From there they were picked up and continued to intermingle with Spanish cattle. In 1493, Christopher Columbus took these Indian variants to the Caribbean on his second voyage. Then they spread to Mexico and Texas. The study by scientists of the universities of Texas (Austin) and Missouri (Columbia) was published in the scientific journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) this week.

This bizarre journey of the Indian cow’s genes is a reflection of human migration as cows have practically coexisted with human society. Cows were domesticated around 10,000 years ago in two regions – Turkey and India – from a wild species called aurochs which were up to two times larger than current bovines. These are respectively called the taurine and indicine types of cows. Aurochs were hunted to extinction by 1627.

It was generally assumed that North American cattle were descendants of European cattle brought by settlers. However, certain varieties of cattle like the Texas Longhorn showed distinctive characteristics like being immune to certain ticks (parasitic insects), and quite capable of withstanding tough drought like conditions. Obviously, there was more to their ancient past than met the eye.

To understand and unravel the origins of American cattle breeds, the scientists analyzed the genetic lineage of three cattle descended from the New World cows: Texas longhorn, Mexican Corriente and Romosinuano cattle from Colombia, and compared them with 55 other cattle breeds.

They found that changes in genetic sequences found in the three New World cows were very similar to the ones in Indian breeds. Collating historical records, the researchers have suggested that these imported cattle survived in wild herds in their new home for another 450 years. This period, covering about 80 to 200 generations would offer an opportunity for natural selection, that is, survival of the characteristics that are better suited to the new environment, at the cost of unsuited characteristics.

There have been later ‘imports’ of the Indian breeds in the Americas, the researchers admit. They were introduced to North America via Jamaica by the 1860s. In the mid-1900s, Indian cattle were imported into Brazil, and now there are “naturalized” Brazilian indicine (Nelore) and indicine/taurine hybrid (Canchim) breeds.

India has the largest cattle population in the world, numbering nearly 300 million heads, followed by Brazil, China and US. 

Indians (read, Hindus) need to reaffirm their faith in their tradition and scriptures. Indian history needs to be freed from the grasp of the flag bearers of westerm interest and its blind followers.

Vindicating traditional historiography: Ramayana accurate portrayal of ancient India

Come Carpentier de Gourdon

10 Sep 2012

A fundamental feature, but also an enduring flaw of the modern scientific method is that it strives to ignore ancient data in order to set up a cultural “tabula rasa” on which it may carry out research and build its own edifice. Traditional annals are regarded a priori as inaccurate, due to the positivistic prejudice that people in the remote past were far less knowledgeable than us, and had access only to primitive intellectual and material tools to investigate and record data.

In the case of India, the florid, allusive, metaphorical and dithyrambic emphasis of the style used by ancient bards convinced their western readers that there was little factually accurate information (at least as far as geography and chronology were concerned) to be gleaned in the old epics and poems. The cosmic resonance given to the heroes’ actions further demonstrated in their view that the haze of legend impenetrably wrapped what little factual core there might have been to the tales told. The fact that Valmiki’s Ramayana is a Kavya stood as proof in skeptical eyes that it was not in fact Itihasa – a record of real happenings.

In recent decades however, the progress in various scientific disciplines has led to a reevaluation of that supposedly “rationalistic” appraisal, and the Ramayana for one is being rediscovered as an “odyssey” that is a periplum of ancient India which is not only topographically informative but chronologically accurate to a degree which modern techniques to resuscitate the past on the basis of some archeological and epigraphic fragments could never reach.

It is strange indeed that the academic community tends to reject a lot of information contained in ancient texts which it does not understand, or does not wish to seriously consider, while it takes pride in reinventing a lost world on the basis of inevitably hazardous detective work on a few tiny indices, “recreating a skeleton out of one retrieved tooth” so to say, in the manner of Sherlock Holmes. Conan Doyle was a novelist, but one often wonders if many paleontologists, paleo-anthropologists, archeologists and ancient historians do not create fiction – or at least “faction” i.e. more or less informed guesswork or speculation – which they wish all to regard as proven fact and are very reluctant to revise even when newly discovered evidence should force them to.

Coming after many other convergent theses, the book by Saroj Bala and Kulbhushan Mishra “Historicity of Vedic and Ramayan Eras” (Scientific Evidences from the Depth of the Oceans to the Heights of the Skies, I-SERVE, 2012) enshrines a valuable array of scientific testimonies backed by hard proof, gathered by some of the best specialists in their respective fields, many holding senior posts at various national agencies of the Government of India. It argues and persuasively demonstrates that the chronological records of ancient India were reliable, at least in some cases, and that the claims of traditional scholars about the antiquity of their scriptures are correct.

Thus, the Indian royal annals quoted by Megasthenes and subsequently by other Greek writers, find support in recent findings and must be far closer to truth than the rather arbitrary attempts at reconstruction made by Western archeologists and linguists on the basis of superficial bookish information in the last hundred and fifty years. The 19th century western approach to the origins of Indian civilization was initially informed by the underlying biblical belief that the world had been created about 4000 BC and then it got influenced by the theory of evolution which saw most of mankind as slowly emerging from savagery in the last four millennia, to find its way to rational knowledge and progress in Greece around 600 BC. Such a conditioned, narrow and deterministic worldview could not harbour the data gathered from little known disciplines in which ancient Indians excelled, such as astronomy, agriculture and botany.

What are the main data provided in Bala’s and Mishra’s book, first presented at a seminar in July 2011(inaugurated by former President APJ Abdul Kalam), that are supported by many other results gathered over the last decades:

1] The Ramayana tells a story which took place in the sixth millennium BC, between 5114 BCE (Sri Rama’s birth, according to the astrological theme given by Valmiki, on Chaitra Shuddha Navami of Punarvasu Nakshatra, date when Rama Navami is celebrated to this day) and 5075 BC (the year he ascended the throne as 64th king of his “Solar” dynasty), in an area encompassing much of its modern territory, from the Ganga basin (Ayodhya and Prayag) to Sri Lanka. Many of the places and sites mentioned in the Epic (more than 250) have kept the same names and vivid traditions connected to the passage of the royal and divine trinity. They retain most of the physical and climatic features noted by Valmiki. The least that can be said is that the author or authors of the kavya were well acquainted with all those locations, personally or through the reports of other travelers.

The dates recorded for the various events narrated in the story (astronomical coordinates that can be recreated with the help of planetarium software as well as, in some cases, eclipses are listed which have been found to be factual for those dates and regions) are also internally and sequentially consistent with the unfolding of the plot. Either the expedition of Rama was chronicled by a contemporary witness who was also a skilled astronomer, or a historian (perhaps Valmiki himself) not too long later was able to reconstitute the zodiacal map out of the dates he was given or personally remembered. That seems like a remarkable achievement, but it would be in keeping with the astronomical proficiency evinced by several ancient civilizations in Asia, Africa and Meso-America, among others.

2] Although it is impossible to establish the date when the Ramayana was composed, since the oldest extant manuscript, preserved in Nepal, is “only” a thousand years old, it stands to reason that knowledge of the topography, vegetation, population and astronomical configuration at the time, of the diverse locations described, implies that the initial account dates back to the period when the narrated events took place

Indeed, absent a computer and sophisticated software, it would have been exceedingly difficult for any poet flourishing many centuries later to “turn the zodiacal clock” back to the time when he wished to situate the story, not to mention that he had no need to do so if he was writing a work of fancy or an imaginative reconstruction. There is no escaping the conclusion that initial records at least were kept during the course of Rama’s journey (as was the use for the lives and deeds of kings) and inserted in the later epic at whatever time it was composed, but there is plenty of literary and artistic evidence that Valmiki’s classic was well known for centuries before the advent of the Common Era. 

Intriguingly, as Pandit Narayan Aiyangar pointed out, there are mentions of Rama and Sita in certain Richas (hymns) of the Vedas (1) whose astronomical references has allowed Bala, Mishra and their team to date it between the ninth and fifth millennium BC.

3] On the other hand, archeological, paleo-botanical, oceanographic and remote sensing findings all coincide in the recognition that settled, refined agricultural civilisation with elaborate art and craft techniques – in wood, textiles, stone and metal – existed in large parts of India from about 8,000 BCE and possibly earlier, at the beginning of the Holocene period which, following the end of the last glaciation, ushered in an era propitious to the development of agriculture, and hence to demographic growth and cultural progress.

Evidence for it is concentrated in the Indus-Saraswati-Ganga-Yamuna river system between present-day Afghanistan and Iran and the modern state of West Bengal (Mehrgarh, Kot Diji, Naushero, Dholavira, Lahuradeva, Jhusi, Takwa, Hettapati et al). Some regions covered by that civilization were in contact with and active at sea, as the Rg Veda repeatedly indicates, from at least the fourth millennium BCE (i.e. the port of Lothal and others, some of which have been located submerged under the sea). There is also archaeo-agricultural evidence that rice, wheat, barley, grapes and many other food crops (up to 29 kinds of grains, pulses, fruits and vegetables) were cultivated by the seventh or sixth millennium BC.

4] While the permanence of poetically embellished historical memories is significant to any cultural anthropologist or historian immersed in the local Indian cultures, the estrangement of western “armchair” scholars of centuries past from the facts on the ground, both geographical and chronological, explains why they generally ignored traditional references, preferring to speculate about unprovable linguistic derivations and suspected origins of the “Indo-European” Rama whom they did not wish to place earlier than 1200 BC (assuming he had ever existed) in order to make him fit in with the supposed date of the Aryan invasion, set by them three hundred years earlier, in an era comfortably less ancient than the Biblically hallowed Chaldean and Egyptian archaic dynasties.

Yet it turns out that if we follow the zodiacal data provided in the Ramayana and check out with the help of modern scientific capabilities, we find Rama’s life is much more accurately recorded – in some cases down to the day and time, such as the hero’s birth, his departure for exile, the death of the “monkey-king” Bali in Kishkinda, the slaying of Ravana in battle and Rama’s victorious return to Ayodhya for his coronation – than those of many axial figures of “western” civilization, beginning with those in the Bible and Greek Epics which, however, appear relatively recent by comparison. Needless to say, the planetary and astral relative positions noted in the Ramayana do not recur for many thousands of years, so that there is little uncertainty about the period in which they took place.

5] It is also archeologically borne out that the wooded and forested areas of Central India where Sri Rama, his consort, and his brother dwelt and traveled during their 14-year exile, were haunted by tribes and dotted with ashrams or spiritual/educational colonies headed by rishis, proficient in various branches of knowledge.

For example, the Ramayana refers to Rishi Agastya, who is traditionally held to have lived at the very tip of South India near Cape Comorin where several places are named after him, and to have had his ashram near modern-day Nasik where he gave Rama, on his way to Lanka, some spiritual and material weapons to fight Ravana. Agastya (whose name etymologically is said to mean “calmer of the ocean” or “mountain thrower” but which may in fact come from a Tamil euphemism for the soul: “he who belongs inside”) gave his name to the star Canopus because he was the first to observe it and Canopus became visible over the horizon in the Northern Deccan and the Vindhyas only from about 5100 BCE, thereby providing one more internally coherent zodiacal reference.

Legend has it that Agastya was born in a pitcher and that he was the head of the Vellalar clan of South India. Coincidentally or not, Canopus (Kah Nub in Egyptian, which means “golden earth” and applied to both the star and the town) was the name given to a port city in the Nile Delta, famous for its clay vases with a human head that represented a local icon of Osiris (Oser-Isvar), seen as god within a pitcher. The Indian Agastya, like the Egyptian Canopic god, was associated with the sea and ships and in “western” astronomy Canopus, also known as the Southern Pole Star, is part of the Argo Navis constellation. For the Chinese and Japanese, Canopus is the Old Man’s Star, a clear reference to the Vedic spiritual master.

6] The Ramayana also describes several caves, some inhabited, and indeed in the Central mountainous belt stretching from the Western Ghats to the Bay of Bengal innumerable rock dwellings and sanctuaries display many types of art, from Paleolithic parietal paintings to monumental Hindu, Jain and later Buddhist sculptures and cave architecture. Central India appears to have been, as the Ramayana and the Vedic texts describe it, a wilderness where scholars, hermits, students and ascetics took refuge and built hermitages away from the densely populated and urbanized northern plains.

7] The picture that is emerging out of geological, paleo-climatic and oceanographic findings is that between 12,000 years BCE (when many ancient annals record the great floods that marked the end of the glacial period) and 5000 BCE, the melting of glaciers gradually raised the level of the oceans by a stupendous 80 meters in the Indian Ocean/Arabian Sea region (according to a report by Dr. Rajiv Nigam, head of the paleo-climate project at the National Institute of Oceanography quoted in the book), submerging huge tracts of land and releasing mighty rivers that flowed down from the Himalayan massif towards the sea.

The Puranas indicate that two of Rama’s royal ancestors, more than twenty generations earlier, undertook large scale projects to channel the water from the Shivalinga glaciers eastwards towards the Bay of Bengal in order to control the floods in the Punjab-Rajasthan area. The chroniclers attributed the rise of the ocean around that period to the release of large amounts of fresh water thereby engineered. The same scriptures also refer to a number of tribes or nations that migrated from the subcontinent in the same era (around 6000-5500 BC) towards West and North Asia.

We can also conclude from that that Rama lived considerably earlier than the era when the “Indus Valley” civilization port of Lothal was built, as archeological evidence shows, since the Arabian Sea level was higher than it is now between 6000 and 4000 years ago. From that latter date the port had to be abandoned as the coastline had changed following a new drop in sea level which probably enabled Sri Krishna to build his capital at Dwarka on reclaimed land, according to the Mahabharata. 

Coincidentally, it has been convincingly established that a similar rise in the level of the North Atlantic submerged the so-called Doggerland, the “British Atlantis” which encompassed what is today the United Kingdom as well as Scandinavia. That vast and densely populated Greater Europe gradually sank under the water between 18 and 5500 BCE. An exhibition entitled “Drowned Landscapes” on the discoveries made in this area by a collective of Scottish, English and Welsh Universities is currently taking place at the Royal Society, since July 2012.

At the time Rama and his army reached the southern tip of India at the place since known as Rameswaram, the sea level was still about 3 meters below the present one, and indeed, the bridge reportedly built by the architect Nala for the king of Kosala and his troops is still visible less than 3 meters below the surface.

According to the Geological Survey of India’s research, that bridge or causeway is an artificial construction. Specifically its report says: “Ramasethu is a natural formation, the top portion of which appears to be man-made” as it consists in part of stones and rounded coral pebbles that were obviously transported and put there. This observation tallies with the Ramayana’s description of the way the causeway was built by connecting many islets and shoals strung along the Palk Strait, filling in the gaps and building a road on top. Considering that this structure is over 30 kilometers long, its construction ranks as one of the most stupendous achievements of archaic mankind.

The Indian Ministry of Earth Sciences further noted: “There are some raised Teri formations that supported a vast assemblage of Mesolithic, microlithic tools indicating the presence of strong human habitation and activity as early as 8000 to 9000 years before present and as late as 4000 years ago”.

8] The Ramayana describes Sri Lanka, which has kept its original name since, as a part of the “Aryan” civilisational area. Its King Ravana, from the Rakshasa tribe, a descendent of Visravas, was a brother of Kubera, the lord of wealth also euphemistically called the “king of the world”, monarch of the northern quarter (Uttarakurus), beyond the Himalayas, who ruled the yakshas (from where the god Thraco-greek Iacchus-Bacchus and the Tibetan Yaks seem to have taken their name) and gandharvas (Gandhara – Gedrosia for the Greeks – is modern day Afghanistan and Northern Pakistan). The name of Kubera is etymologically related to Siberia, if we keep in mind the sata/centum dichotomy – which is not split by a clear East/West divide, contrary to the original theory – among Indo-European languages. The Shubras or Shubrians for instance were a Middle Eastern, probably Iranian people, settled in Eastern Asia Minor who were conquered and assimilated by the Assyrians from the 8th century BC onwards.

Ravana, Kubera’s brother and Rama’s foe is also said to be descended, like all Rakshasas, from Rishi Pulastya and to be a great devotee of Shiva (3) so that his cultural kinship with both the “Aryan” Rama and the “Dravidian” Agastya is attested, over and above the conflict. A common origin for the peoples of the subcontinent from North to South was hence recognized and anthropology vindicates that belief as both the Sinhalese and Tamil inhabitants of Sri Lanka belong to the greater Indian genetic family.

The authors of the book under review have visited various sites in Sri Lanka and identified various sites described by Valmiki rather precisely, including the caves opening on four sides of a hill that led to Ravana’s rock-hewn fortress, in the region of Nuwara Eliya, the island’s central massif. The tradition of building palaces on top of steep rocky hills, surrounded with terraced gardens and harbouring deep caves used for habitation, defence and worship, remained alive until medieval days in Sri Lanka as can be seen in the renowned sites of Sigiriya and Dambulla.

8] Over and above the fact that hominid bone remains and tools found in the Indian subcontinent date back to more than two and a half million years (4), DNA research yields the definitive conclusion that the Indian population is overwhelmingly homogenous since some 55,000 to 60,000 years when it is believed to have moved in from Africa. Strangely (but is it?), some traditional Puranic chronologies situate the beginnings of civilization with the arrival of the first Manu of this cycle some 56,000 years ago. In Southern Siberia, recent genetic tests have shown that an earlier human population, known as Denisovian, sharing many traits with Melanesians and Australian aborigines, mingled with homo sapiens newcomers before vanishing as a separate genus, probably migrating from the South, about 50,000 years ago.

The Greek historians after Megasthenes quoted the Indian royal annals as beginning with the first sovereign of the Solar Race whom the Greeks called Bacchus or Iacchus (Ikshvaku in Samskrit), in 6776 BC (5). That fits chronologically with the nomenclature of 63 kings who ruled Kosala before Sri Rama as listed in Valmiki’s opus (whereby Ikshvaku would have lived some sixteen to eighteen centuries before Sri Rama), and indeed, since about 7000 BC at least all scientific data confirm that an autochthonous civilization experienced consistent development, displaying increasing sophistication and expanding far and wide even beyond the subcontinent. Royal annals further assert that Rama’s two sons and the sons of his brothers and half-brothers, eight in all, ruled as many kingdoms, spread from the Eastern Gangetic plain to the confines of Afghanistan (Taxila and modern-day Peshawar).

9] From a climatic point of view, it is logical to assume that the first settlements of homo sapiens in the subcontinent were located in the South, closer to the Equator and less affected by glacial ages. Indeed, there are traces of prehistoric villages in Tamil Nadu which predate the Toba’s explosion in Indonesia, as shown by the volcanic ashes that covered them around 60,000 years ago. The first Indian civilization should thus have taken root in the South before moving northwards and settling in the riverine plains in the shadows of the great Himalayan chain, well after 12,000 BCE. If that is so, Ravana and his Sri Lanka kingdom would have belonged to an elder branch of the Indic ethnic family.

10] Contemporary developments in linguistic archeology, however disputable those may be, reveal at least according to P. Foster and A. Toth (2003) (6) that Indo-European languages are probably derived from a common ancestor that was already spoken more than 10,000 years ago. From about 5000 to 3500 BCE there are traces of the expansion of that linguistic family throughout Eurasia, from Urals and the Volga to Central Asia. J Greenberg (7) has gone further back in time and tried to show the existence of a common Eurasian macro-family that includes non Indo-European ones, such as the Uralic, Altaic (Turkic) and Afro-Asiatic languages, formerly known as Semito-Hamitic as well as Elamo-Dravidian. His thesis connects with the Nostratic theory in its various interpretations, which generally propose the existence of a common proto-Nostratic source in the Epipaleolithic Age, towards the end of the last glaciation.

There is much common ground as well with the hypothesis of Paleolithic Continuity or PCC (8) which India’s pre-history and history, corroborated by human genetics, illustrate with great clarity as this report shows. Bomhard estimates that 5000 BC (Rama’s age) was when the Proto-Eurasiatic linguistic family divided into Indo-European, Proto-Uralic and Proto-Altaic branches.

The academic school which seeks to prove since Colin Renfrew, that there is an Anatolian origin (in modern day Turkey) for all those “Paleolithic” languages, has not made its case beyond doubt so far, and there might well have been a common linguistic motherland spread over a wide area comprised between North-Western India and Eastern Asia Minor.

Atkinson’s phylogeographic attempt (sciencemag, August 23, 2012 by Nicholas Wade) to establish the common forebear of all Indo-European languages by using a computer to mimic in reverse the evolution of 103 languages of that family, yields Anatolia as the urheimat some 8 to 9500 ago; but its conclusion is disputed by other experts who continue to believe that the westward Indo-European expansion began only in the fifth millennium BCE, either from Asia Minor or from the Black Sea steppe region. However, it is not even clear whether the Kurgan culture, the supposed ancestor, beyond the fact that it was Eurasiatic, was Indo-European or Uralic; so a lot of controversy remains. Further, the now confirmed existence of an epipaleolithic civilization in submerged “Doggerland” even before the dawn of the Holocene throws in disarray all the other theories about human migrations.

The motherland of Eurasiatic or Nostratic languages more than 12000 years ago remains undetermined and could as well as been located in South Asia as in Anatolia.

11] The evidence of a steep but gradual sea level rise in the first five millennia of the Holocene force us to consider the possibility that many settled and populated areas were swallowed by the ocean, and that only those populations which moved to higher grounds were able to survive. That accounts for the traditions preserved in South India about the vanished continent of Kumari Kandam that some have identified with legendary Lemuria, and also for the discovery of extensive urban ruins, more than 8000 years old, under the water of the Gulf of Khambat and Arabian Sea off the coasts of Gujarat and Saurashtra. Tamil civilization traces its origins back to the once emerged lands which now lie beneath the Indian Ocean to the west of Sri Lanka, and the earliest known Dravidian royal dynasty, the House of Pandya, claimed to have ruled over Kumari Kandam and that could only have been before the sea level rise, i.e., prior to the seventh millennium BCE.

Coincidentally Plato recorded that Atlantis, which he located beyond the pillars of Hercules, sank into the Atlantic Ocean sometime after 9600 years BCE, probably as a result of the post-glacial sea level rise around the time when “Doggerland” also became submerged in various stages.

12] There are many “supernatural” elements in the Ramayana (as in all ancient epics, such as the Iliad, Odyssey, Mabinogion, Beowulf et al) which have made scientifically minded scholars wary of lending any credence to the story as a whole. However, the insertion of prodigious characters and miraculous events seems to have been a required feature for heroic tales and records of the ancient world on all continents. The interpretation of those epics need not be literal. In the Ramayana, the vanaras, monkeys who formed Rama’s army along with other wild animals may be regarded as forest dwelling tribesmen which had the langhur or macaque as their totemic animal and emblem, just as the crest of Kosala was the two fishes that have remained in the arms of the successive dynasties of Awadh (Ayodhya) (9) until the present.

 It is a universal tradition in fables and legends to lend animals many of the moral and physical features of human beings and involve them in the story as equal protagonists. The vanaras may well be Central India’s pygmies cited by Ctesias, who reported that they were experts in archery and provided soldiers to various kings. They also may be at the source of Greek reports about India’s kalystroi or cynocephali, a dog-headed, monkey-tailed population of mountain-dwelling hunters and herdsmen with a reputation for honesty and justice. Jatayu, the giant eagle that tried to rescue Sita from her abductor in the Ramayana appears to be a mythified vulture identified in ancient travellers’s accounts with the fabulous griffins, semi-human birds of prey which kept watch over gold mines.

13] There remains however an enigma which is harder to unravel. One is the repeated and detailed mention of sophisticated weaponry, quite out of character with the technology of that pastoral age, and of flying vehicles, including the golden puspaka vimana (shaped like a flower or lotus and also alluded to as a cloud in the sky) which Rama took from the slain Ravana in order to fly back to his capital city in a few hours, after taking many months to complete the onward journey on foot. Analysing this aspect of the story is another subject, which “Historicity of Vedic and Ramayana Eras” does not address. But we can only wonder whether Ravana and his Rakshasas, as the oldest branch of the post-glacial population in the subcontinent, closer to the submerged land of Kanya Kumari, had kept or gained access to an advanced scientific knowledge that their northern cousins long settled in the Sapthasindhu region had lost. That would account for the semi-divine or supernatural status they were given in the cosmography of the day.

The inevitable conclusion of this review of available facts, old and new, is that civilization in India – as in other parts of the world – is much more ancient than archeologists generally think, and that most sites excavated so far in Sumer, Iran, Anatolia, Egypt and the Indus Valley, are more recent, by several thousand years, than the cities and settlements described by Valmiki.

 India’s civilisation can only be compared in terms of antiquity with the contemporary societies of Egypt, the Levant, Asia Minor, Iran and Central Asia whose early, often monumental remains, found at Gobekli, Catalhoyuk, Jericho, Zarzian, Hissar and Keltiminar date back to the age of the Vedas. As Valmiki’s masterwork indicates, Rama and his India were the heirs of a very ancient indigenous culture rooted in the pre-holocene glaciation period.

Notes 

1] Aiyangar notes that the Rig Veda mentions Rama Margaveya who first pressed the soma sacred brew, whereas the Yajur Veda dedicates four stanzas to Sita, daughter of Prajapati. The author, who also notes that Rama Jamadagni or Parasurama is an older avatara of the Sri Rama archetype, gives an astronomic interpretation of most Indian myths and epics and equates Rama with the god Indra and with the Sun, while Sita is the star Betelgeuse, and Ravana the moon. This however, does not contradict the original human history as it is common for legends and their characters to assume a cosmological dimension. For instance, the fact that George Washington owed his given name to an Indo-European dragon-slaying Spring God (Georges) similar to Indra does not make the father of American independence less historically real.

2] In Northern Pakistan, Kashmir and Uttarakhand, skeletal fragments and lithic tools date back to 2,5 -2 million years before present. Proto-Hominid remains in the Kalagarh basin of Uttarakhand (Ramapithecus) are about 10 million years old.

 3] Shiva, one of the many names or euphemisms given to Rudra “The howler” or the “Red One”, seems related to the Thracian Evoe, (Iahweh?) used both as an invocation and a surname of Bacchus or Iacchus. In Indian languages certain names lost their initial s consonant, as in siddhi (samskrt) to iddhi (pali).

4] The Greek interpretation of the first Indian king’s name as Iacchus translated as Dionysos suggests that it was derived from the Vedic Ikshvaku who came second after Manu in the traditional chronology. The Greeks generally equated Iacchus-Bacchus with Shiva as both were said to dwell in the mountains (Kailash, the Caucasus or Zagros respectively) surrounded by wild animals and to induce a sacred intoxication in their followers. The wedding of Bacchus and Ariadne, a foster daughter of the Cretan bull, also has connections with Nandi-riding Shiva’s betrothal with Parvati. Vishnu on the other hand was identified by them with Herakles-Hercules who also carried the mace, wore a lion skin (Narasimha?) and was celebrated for twelve heroic feats reminiscent of the Indian God’s ten world-saving avatars.

5] P. Foster and A. Toth “Towards a Phylogenic Chronology of Ancient Gaulish, Celtic and Indo-European” PNAS, 100 (15), 9079-9084 (2003). They conclude that Indo-European languages took shape in 8100 BCE (between 9600 and 6600 BCE) and that Celts reached Britain about 3200 BCE.

7] “Indo-European and Its Closest Relatives: The Eurasiatic Language Family” (2 vols, 2000-2002)

8] The Paleolithic Continuity Theory or Paradigm expounded by Mario Alinei in his book Origini delle Lingue d’Europa (1996) holds that Indo-European languages in Europe are indigenous and developed during the Paleolithic period, but it is disputed also on genetic grounds as recent mitochondrial DNA research (B. Bramanti, sciencemag.org) has shown in 2009 that a large influx of farming people in Europe at the beginning of the Neolithic provided the ancestry of most modern Europeans by supplanting the earlier Paleolithic hunter-gatherers (see Arrredi, Poloni, Tyler Smith’s The Peopling of Europe in Michael Crawford’s Anthropological Genetics (pp. 380-408)).

9] Note that according to his astronomic birth chart, Dasaratha was born with the Sun in Pisces (Meena). His son and heir Rama was born under the sign of Aries (Mesha the Ram), which follows Pisces in the zodiacal cycle. There are parallel cosmological, symbolic and historical dimensions in the epic.

The author is Convener, Editorial Board, World Affairs Journal. In 1999, he co-founded the Telesis Academy in Switzerland, dedicated to the study of the ancient wisdom of East and West in the contemporary scientific context. He has been associated with the Nuclear Disarmament Forum and the Foundation of Global Dialog in Switzerland.

Similar to the rust-proof iron pillar (also known as the Ashoke pillar) of Delhi, India,  that graces the Qutb complex, we come across another rustproof iron wonder, recently discovered.

As per Wikipidia, the iron pillar, which weighs more than six tons and is 23 feet tall, is believed to date back to as early as 912 BC. Incidentally, the pillar initially stood in the center of a Jain temple complex housing twenty-seven temples that were destroyed by Qutb-ud-din Aybak, (another evidence of Islamic atrocitity) and their material was used in building the mosque and Qutub Minar complex where the pillar stands today. The pillar has been called “a testament to the skill of ancient Indian blacksmiths” because of its high resistance to corrosion, due to both the Delhi environment providing alternate wetting and drying conditions, and iron with high phosphorus content conferring protection by the formation of an even layer of crystalline iron hydrogen phosphate.

 

The depth of History

The name Sunrakh doesn’t ring a bell for those who have bought flats at posh residential colonies across the road. But very soon, this sleepy village off National Highway 2 will add a new chapter to ancient Indian history, particularly in the use of iron.

Vrindavan is right next door, and, in fact, a turn from Chatikara leading to the temple town takes one to this village. After a couple of potholes, the road disappears into a dusty path that leads to a water tank, which local residents believe to be around 3,000 years old.

Ramtaal is undoubtedly one of the oldest sites in the region, as per British revenue records. And like many archaeological and heritage sites, this, too, lay forgotten till Braj Foundation, a voluntary organisation recharging and conserving water bodies in the region since 2005, discovered it.

Having recharged almost 40 kunds or water bodies—most of them ancient and in remote areas—across the Braj region in the last seven years, the NGO came upon Ramtaal. Removal of encroachments was a tough task as was de-silting as the tank had turned into a flat field, says Vineet Narain, chairman of Braj Foundation. The process started in December 2011 with financial assistance from Kamal Morarka, CMD of Gannon Dunkerley Group. Deep de-silting brought out the original tank, and further excavation revealed iron used in the plinth of the structure. “The surprising part was that molten iron plates used at the bottom of the tank had not rusted,” says Narain.

S K Dubey, Archaeological Officer of the state Archaeological Department, who has taken samples of this iron, says, “This kind of use of iron, at the plinth level, is indeed a unique discovery. However, a lot needs to be examined before drawing conclusions. The bricks used in the water tank seem to date back to at least the 7th century while the bottom level may be older. We plan to send the samples to our Lucknow office for further examination. Though iron has been in use for the past 3,500 years, usually plaster-like arsenic or bitumen is found in such ancient tanks. The use of iron is, thus, rare and more so because there is very little evidence of rusting,” he explains.

The tank measures 120 feet in length and 180 feet in width, while its wall is 4 feet 6 inches thick, with a 1.5-metre-wide and 2-inch-thick iron plate running through it. “The brick size is 12 and ¼ inch x 8 ¼ inch with a thickness of 2 ¼ inch. The specifications match those given in Samarangana Sutradhara, a text compiled by Parmar ruler Raja Bhoj (AD 1000-1055) for constructing a public water tank,” claims Project Manager Bipin Vyas, who has been involved in various heritage restoration works in Mathura and Agra.

History professor Virendra Singh, a native of this village who teaches at Government College, Kushinagar, and has done extensive research on Mathura region, says that Ramtaal finds mention in several ancient texts such as poet Jagadanan’s Brajvastuvarnan, and that the site dates back to the Kushana period. He, too, agrees that use of iron in a water tank and that at the lowest level is unusual. “We need to find out the reasons why it has not rusted, and whether it is 100 per cent iron. Perhaps samples should be sent to the Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow, for proper carbon dating. This will be a new chapter in the history of the region,” he says.

Singh points out another angle to the discovery: “There are no iron ores near Mathura. However, Ramtaal is situated at the junction of five highways of the Kushana period. Also, the Yamuna flowed close by then. Thus, a powerful individual or organisation—maybe a king—is likely to have brought iron via these highways or boats carrying iron plates must have anchored near this place. This seems a possible explanation. After all, Mathura was an important Hindu and Buddhist centre, an ancient janpad, and even during Mughal rule, a trade centre between Agra and Delhi,” he says. Singh puts the date of the site around 2,500 years ago.

Project Manager Vyas, however, says that archaeologists from Bangalore have unofficially confirmed it to be 2,900 years old.

The excavation has been brought to the notice of the district administration as well. Sanjay Kumar, District Magistrate, Mathura, says, “While the work done so far by the NGO is commendable, the administration will have to wait for a formal report from the archaeological department. Once the findings are final, the district administration can approach the Archaeological Survey of India. Meanwhile, we can ask the department to speed up the work.”

For the local villages, there are issues other than those of historical importance. While some feel that once the findings get a formal stamp, Ramtaal will no longer be a village property, others hope the development and promotion of the site will lead to employment generation. Rajesh Chander, a member of the gram panchayat, has another worry: “Encroachments and land grabbing is happening in connivance with local revenue officials, and hence, things may not be smooth for making Ramtaal a tourist spot,” he says.

The Braj Foundation, however, has grand plans. Narain cites the example of the ancient Brahmakund in Vrindavan that they have restored and turned into a tourist spot. “We will ensure that the original structure is protected, and renovation and beautification done in a manner that will attract tourists, and development done in order to generate employment,” he says.

 

The tragedy revisited ….. lest we forget …..

Over a thousand years, as Hindus, we have given a chance to ‘unity’ and ‘integration’. We can dream to try another thousand years. But the reality is in the history and in the scriptural dictates. The sooner we understand that, the better. Time to say, NO MORE!!

19/01/90: When Kashmiri Pandits fled Islamic terror
January 19, 2005

Srinagar, January 4, 1990.

Aftab, a local Urdu newspaper, publishes a press release issued by Hizb-ul Mujahideen, set up by the Jamaat-e-Islami in 1989 to wage jihad for Jammu and Kashmir’s secession from India and accession to Pakistan, asking all Hindus to pack up and leave. Another local paper, Al Safa, repeats this expulsion order.

In the following days, there is near chaos in the Kashmir valley with Chief Minister Farooq Abdullah and his National Conference government abdicating all responsibilities of the State. Masked men run amok, waving Kalashnikovs, shooting to kill and shouting anti-India slogans.

Reports of killing of Hindus, invariably Kashmiri Pandits, begin to trickle in; there are explosions; inflammatory speeches are made from the pulpits of mosques, using public address systems meant for calling the faithful to prayers. A terrifying fear psychosis begins to take grip of Kashmiri Pandits.

Walls are plastered with posters and handbills, summarily ordering all Kashmiris to strictly follow the Islamic dress code, prohibiting the sale and consumption of alcoholic drinks and imposing a ban on video parlours and cinemas. The masked men with Kalashnikovs force people to re-set their watches and clocks to Pakistan Standard Time.

Shops, business establishments and homes of Kashmiri Pandits, the original inhabitants of the Kashmir valley with a recorded cultural and civilisational history dating back 5,000 years, are marked out. Notices are pasted on doors of Pandit houses, peremptorily asking the occupants to leave Kashmir within 24 hours or face death and worse.  Some are more lucid:Be one with us, run, or die!

* * *

Srinagar, January 19, 1990.

Jagmohan arrives to take charge as governor of Jammu and Kashmir. Farooq Abdullah, whose pathetic, whimpering, snivelling government has all but ceased to exist and has gone into hiding, resigns and goes into a sulk. Curfew is imposed as a first measure to restore some semblance of law and order. But it fails to have a deterrent effect.

Throughout the day, Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front and Hizbul Mujahideen terrorists use public address systems at mosques to exhort people to defy curfew and take to the streets. Masked men, firing from their Kalashnikovs, march up and down, terrorising cowering Pandits who, by then, have locked themselves in their homes.

As evening falls, the exhortations become louder and shriller. Three taped slogans are repeatedly played the whole night from mosques: Kashmir mei agar rehna hai, Allah-O-Akbar kehna hai (If you want to stay in Kashmir, you have to say Allah-O-Akbar); ‘Yahan kya chalega, Nizam-e-Mustafa‘ (What do we want here? Rule of Shariah); ‘Asi gachchi Pakistan, Batao roas te Batanev san‘ (We want Pakistan along with Hindu women but without their men).

In the preceding months, 300 Hindu men and women, nearly all of them Kashmiri Pandits, had been slaughtered ever since the brutal murder of Pandit Tika Lal Taploo, noted lawyer and BJP national executive member, by the JKLF in Srinagar on September 14, 1989. Soon after that, Justice N K Ganju of the Srinagar high court was shot dead. Pandit Sarwanand Premi, 80-year-old poet, and his son were kidnapped, tortured, their eyes gouged out, and hanged to death. A Kashmiri Pandit nurse working at the Soura Medical College Hospital in Srinagar was gang-raped and then beaten to death. Another woman was abducted, raped and sliced into bits and pieces at a sawmill.

In villages and towns across the Kashmir valley, terrorist hit lists have been floating about. All the names are of Kashmiri Pandits. With no government worth its name, the administration having collapsed and disappeared, the police nowhere to be seen, despondency sets in. As the night of January 19, 1990, wears itself out, despondency gives way to desperation.

And tens of thousands of Kashmiri Pandits across the valley take a painful decision: to flee their homeland to save their lives from rabid jihadis. Thus takes place a 20th century Exodus.

* * *

Srinagar, January 19, 2005.

There are no Kashmiri Pandits in Srinagar, or, for that matter, anywhere else in the Kashmir valley; they don’t live here anymore. You can find them in squalid refugee camps in Jammu and Delhi. As many as 300,000 Kashmiri Pandits have fled their home and hearth and been reduced to living the lives of refugees in their own country.

Two-thirds of them are camping in Jammu. The rest are in Delhi and in other Indian cities. Many of them, once prosperous and proud of their rich heritage, now live in grovelling poverty, dependent on government dole and charity. In these 15 years, an entire generation of exiled Kashmiri Pandits has grown up, without seeing the land from where their parents fled to escape the brutalities of Islamic terrorism, a land they dare not return to, although that land still remains a part of their country.

A large number of them are suffering from a variety of stress and depression related diseases. A group of doctors who surveyed the mental and physical health of the Kashmiri Pandits living in refugee camps, found high incidence of ‘economic distress, stress induced diabetes, partial lunacy, hypertension and mental retardation.’ Statistics reflect high death rate and low birth rate among the Kashmiri Pandit refugees.

And thereby hangs a tragic tale that has been all but wiped out from public memory.

An entire people have been uprooted from the land of their ancestors and left to fend for themselves as a weak-kneed Indian state shamelessly panders to Islamic terrorists and separatists who claim they are the final arbiters of Jammu and Kashmir’s destiny. A part of India’s cultural heritage has been destroyed; a chapter of India’s civilisational history has been erased.

Had this tragedy occurred elsewhere in Hindu majority India, and had the victims been Muslims, we would have described it as ‘ethnic cleansing’ and ‘genocide.’ We would have made films with horror-inducing titles. We would have filed cases in the Supreme Court of India. Our media would have marshalled remarkable rage in reporting the smallest detail.

But, this tragedy has occurred in Muslim majority Kashmir valley, and the victims are all Hindus, that too Pandits. What has been lost is part of India’s Hindu culture, what has been erased is integral to India’s Hindu civilisation.

Therefore, the government makes bold to record that the Kashmiri Pandits have “migrated on their own” and their ‘displacement (is) self-imposed;’ the National Human Rights Commission, after a perfunctory inquiry, refuses to concede that what has happened is ‘genocide’ or ‘ethnic cleansing,’ though facts add up to no less than that, never mind that 300,000 lives have been destroyed.

And, our jhola-wallah brigade of secular activists rudely turn up their noses to the plight of Kashmiri Pandits: Hindu sorrow, inflicted by Islamic terror, stinks.

Today, on January 19, the 15th anniversary of the forced flight of Kashmiri Pandits, look back at India’s wretched history of secular politics and consider the terrible price the nation has paid at the altar of appeasement because the Indian State has, and continues to, toe the line of least resistance.

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Jeffrey Armstrong on the Mysteries of Indian Culture, the Relevance of Hindu Vedas and the Reality of Ancient Flying Machines

Sunday, December 19, 2010 – with  Anthony Wile

 

The Daily Bell is pleased to present an exclusive interview with Jeffrey Armstrong.

Introduction: Jeffrey Armstrong is an award-winning author of numerous books on Vedic knowledge including his recent book: Spiritual Teachings of the Avatar, Ancient Wisdom for a New World. He is a philosopher, practitioner and teacher of the Vedas for the past 40 years. He has degrees in Psychology, History & Comparative Religions, and Literature and had a successful career as an executive in Silicon Valley before turning to teaching full time. Jeffrey Armstrong (Kavindra Rishi) is the founder of VASA – Vedic Academy of Sciences & Arts in Vancouver Canada. His work aims at promoting higher education in the Vedic sciences, showing their roots in Veda and Vedanta, taking an integrated approach with the different Vedic disciplines. As the Vice President and International Media Coordinator for the Vedic Friends Association (VFA), Jeffrey Armstrong is a global advocate for the Sanatana Dharma Culture.

Daily Bell: Give us some background, where did you grow up?

Jeffrey Armstrong: I am one of those people that people often ask: How did you do all that in one life? I was born in Detroit, Michigan and by the time I was 13 I had become more interested than anyone I knew in questions such as: Who are we? Why are we here? What is life? I was a philosopher in the making, but I sure wasn’t surrounded by many others in the suburbs of Detroit. Eventually, everything I did became directed toward answering these questions.

Daily Bell: Did you focus on these issues in college?

Jeffrey Armstrong: I went off to university and spent five years working on a double major, one in psychology and one in creative writing, literature, and poetry. During that time – which was also the 60s – I was intensely involved in social developments and what was going on in the world and the experiences of the time. From that I was led, in almost every subject that I entered into, toward India. It is my opinion that if one studies most any modern subject with real diligence, they will be led, as I was, to India. India has the largest simultaneously scientific and spiritual ‘library’ known to exist.

I then spent five years in a Yoga ashram, as a celibate monk, being trained in the knowledge and practices of India. At the end of that time I spent two years learning Vedic Astrology. In the west, Astrology is mostly considered entertainment but in India it is a very serious and rigorous science. Then I went back for another degree in History and Comparative Religion where I spent 3 more years and then a year of graduate work in South Asian studies at the University of Wisconsin. I also studied modern dance, various forms of martial arts, fencing, Chinese herbal studies and rode and trained horses for many years.

Starting in 1980 I began working in corporations in Silicon Valley. I first worked for Apple Computer as their Middle Eastern Sales Manager and then spent the next 7 years at the heart of the explosion of Silicon Valley, in various Executive Sales & Marketing positions. Finally, I decided I would prefer to work outside the corporation, as a consultant, rather than inside. So, I built a career for myself as a corporate motivational speaker and spent the next 10 years speaking to Fortune 500 companies around the world. That was my work until 14 years ago, when I made the commitment to be a full time spiritual teacher. During all these years, I have been an avid Mystical poet and have written over 1,600 poems describing the philosophy of India in modern English.

Daily Bell: How did you get interested in Indian culture and religion?

Jeffrey Armstrong: Religion is the wrong word to use for India’s teachings. Religion is a word that is more accurately applied to the Middle Eastern Abrahamic cultures. Judaism, Christianity and Islam are religions. The origin of the word religion, from the Latin, is re-legare (a legalistic system of rules given by God) or ‘bound by rules.’ Re = tied up or connected by, and ligion = legare = ligaments = to tie, bind or bandage. The usual idea is that the practitioner of a religion is bound up in rules or laws. This especially applies to the three Abrahamic religions of Judaism, Christianity and Islam, whereas the spiritual practices of India are called a Dharma Culture. The main difference is religions generally have one book of rules and stories whereas a Dharma culture has a library of spiritual and material knowledge aimed at understanding who we really are and how to properly use everything around us. The phrase Dharma Culture is a more accurate descriptor for India, as compared to the ‘Indian religion’ or ‘Hindu religion.’

At the core of the Abrahamic Religions is a set of rules given by God that we are told we must follow because a specific vision of God and His prophet said so. That is not the basis of the Vedic Spiritual Library of India. India does not have a single book or an authoritarian/disciplinarian God, it uses an entirely different approach to the question of who we are and it is certainly more philosophical than a Religion, but it also contains many other components. It has a library of self-actualizing sacred knowledge, rather than just one dogmatic book.

Daily Bell: What do you believe in and why? What application does it have to the West?

Jeffrey Armstrong: My lifelong effort has been to try to find things that are universally true rather than relatively true and I believe that the largest library of that information exists in India in spite of the fact that India is a very fragmented culture right now due in large part to 1200 years of violent colonization by outside invading forces. This library of knowledge stretches back for thousands and thousands of years and is, as far as I know, the largest repository of the universal truth that exists on our planet.

What we now call the West is the outgrowth of a tribal or city/state approach to living on the planet. This means if you take care of your tribe, you are seen as good. So, to all those tribes who were fighting against each other for thousands of years in a series of wars, that essentially meant that as long as the spoils of the wars were brought back and shared amongst the tribe, they were good. Alexander the Great was a prime example of this. He went out to rape, pillage and conquer, and was a monster to the rest of the world, but was considered great by his people, hence the name. He was really great at being a warmonger, and a rapist and a pillager. But he brought his people back the spoils of war. India, on the other hand, is the only culture of its size in the world that has never gone out and tried to spread its beliefs by war. In fact, it has consistently given shelter to anyone from any culture. So, to compare histories, the west is a competitive, war-based civilization and India has been a nurturing, cooperation-based civilization on an epic scale. I am involved in the process of practicing and transferring that cooperative culture of India to the war-based culture of the west at a crucial time when it is needed very much.

Daily Bell: Let us go back in time. How old is humankind?

Jeffrey Armstrong: This is one of the most striking things about India. Indians of pre-modern history calculated the age of the universe in trillions of years. This is also the culture that gave us zero, the numerals that we use – so-called Arabic have their roots in India – as do trigonometry and calculus, astronomical calculation and a view that says the universe is not only billions, but trillions of years in age and that we are eternal beings who are simply visiting the material world to have the experience of being here. So, the point is, India holds a massive cosmological view of us – and that humans have existed for trillions of years, in varying stages of existence. And further, over time humans will continue to populate the many universes again and again.

Daily Bell: You wrote a book about this. Can you explain?

Jeffrey Armstrong: The book I wrote is called: The Spiritual Teachings of the Avatar, published by Atria/Beyond Words an imprint of Simon and Schuster. The word Avatar means the descent of the Transcendental Divine or Supreme Being to the Earth for the purpose of revealing things we need to know about both living here and the nature of the Transcendental itself. In other words, to inform us of that which is currently beyond our sight.

Daily Bell: Are there lost Indian cities under the sea?

Jeffrey Armstrong: There is at least one that was discovered in 2001 in the Bay of Cambay, which is off the west coast of India. In a routine, environmental scan of the bottom of the sea, a city was discovered which turns out to have the largest megalithic stones of any city in ancient times; artifacts were dated to about 10,000 years ago. This find hasn’t yet been recognized in mainstream intellectual and academic circles but is nonetheless a momentous discovery which I am sure will eventually contribute to the review of our current theories of the age of human civilization. The city sits in about 150 feet of water, which indicates it was built before the last melting of the polar ice caps, which most geologists date conservatively at about 12,000 years ago. It appears to have had a building format similar to the cities of Harappa and Mohendro Daro (3000-5000 BCE), which were previously thought to be the oldest cities of India (and located in what is now called Pakistan). But this underwater city off the coast of India suggests, conservatively, 15,000 years of sophisticated human history in India.

Daily Bell: Did the ancient Indians know how to fly and to build flying machines? Are there replicas of these machines on the tops of ancient temples?

Jeffrey Armstrong: On the latter question, I am not sure I have heard that there are replicas of the airplanes or Vimanas as they were referred to in the epic histories of India. But there are two Indian epics, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, the two epic poems that supposedly took place 5,000 years ago and over 1.2 million years ago in India, and the Ramayana actually begins with a scene in which a very sophisticated stolen airplane is being flown all over the Earth. Such ancient stories, thousands and thousands of years old, have no logical reason for talking about airplanes in any modern sense. Yet they do.

Daily Bell: Did this civilization possess nuclear weapons?

Jeffrey Armstrong: It did not possess nuclear weapons as we know them and there is no evidence that India cultivated radium or other atomic materials at all. There is reference to a particular kind of mantra-based weapon that was used along with bows and arrows and is called a “Brahmastra.” This weapon supposedly could release nuclear-like energy with pinpoint accuracy. So not exactly nuclear, but its use produces the same consequence of bringing an intensely powerful explosion to a targeted area: complete and fiery destruction. But in the epics there is nothing that resembles the nuclear reactors or nuclear contamination we see today. India is also unique in that, historically, none of their wars were fought with or against civilian populations. Even in the massive Mahabharata war, warriors fought warriors on a sequestered field of battle, leaving civilians untouched.

Daily Bell: Are there lost power sources and other ancient technologies that we could perhaps reclaim with enough study?

Jeffrey Armstrong: This is a question that is once again coming to light. For example, there is a recent though controversial book out called 1421: The Year China Discovered the World, by a British submarine captain, Gavin Menzies. Regardless, China and India had very sophisticated sea faring technology, which is now proven, and with that technology and with the many inventions that both cultures created, it is becoming more and more clear that there was an extensive technological culture at an earlier time period in history than generally thought, that was spread all over the planet. It is now considered very likely that China and India had the ability to circumnavigate the entire planet. The ships that were launched from China in 1423 were 300 feet long and double-hulled and could stay at sea for 300 days at a time. Menzies further suggests that many inventions attributed to Leonardo de Vinci were actually from a book that the Chinese brought to Italy in 1423 on a global, seafaring expedition. Either way, China and India and Egypt appear to have had sophisticated technologies for thousands and thousands of years before modern times. And for the record, it is also common historical knowledge that both Egypt and China acknowledge their debt to India as the oldest culture.

Daily Bell: How were the great stone blocks used by ancient builders moved from place to place?

Jeffrey Armstrong: This still remains a mystery. There are actually conjectures that this was done with so-called psychic ability and powerful sound vibrations called mantras, yet there is no proof of this theory. All that aside, so-called modern man constantly and profoundly underestimates the brilliance of so-called primitive man.

Daily Bell: What happened to this ancient civilization? Was it worldwide?

Jeffrey Armstrong: There is a lot of evidence that it was global and as I mentioned many were seafaring and using extremely accurate astronomical, heliocentric calculations for both Earth and celestial motions, indicating an understanding that the Sun is at the center of the solar system and that the Earth is round. Elliptical orbits were also calculated for all moving celestial bodies. The findings are remarkable. What India calculated thousands of years ago, for example the wobble of the Earth’s axis, which creates the movement called precession of the equinoxes – the slowly changing motion that completes one cycle every 25,920 years – has only recently been validated by modern science.

Was this knowledge given to them by divine beings as they claim? Was there inter-galactic travel? Did the people in India have contact with beings or knowledge from other planets? We don’t know, but what is certain is that they had mathematical/astronomical understanding that is extremely precise and agrees with many of the results of astronomy today. There is no other way to explain why India and these ancient cultures would have such precise knowledge other than the fact that they were in a period of impressive technology and culture beyond our present understanding.

Daily Bell: The modern Hindu spirituality is a reflection of this ancient civilization and its knowledge?

Jeffrey Armstrong: Reflection is probably a good word because India has been aggressively colonized for the last 1200 years. Some scholars have suggested that as many as 60 million people died in the process of both the Muslim and British colonization of India. Whatever the numbers, that a holocaust of this proportion hasn’t even been discussed in terms of history speaks for itself. But what is simultaneously amazing is that the culture of India is as intact as it is compared to what one would expect from such extreme abuse and what we usually see with other decimated indigenous groups all across the world.

Sixteenth century India has been described as the wealthiest country in the world, with the best universal educational system – all of which has obviously become seriously damaged. India of today does not accurately represent the ancient culture, but what is amazing is that the India of today, without funding or resources, has spread its knowledge around the world. Today, there are probably as many as 100 million people practicing aspects of yoga – not because India spent a lot of money trying to spread its culture, but because that knowledge is, I would say, innately desired and needed by people all over the world.

So, to look at current India and then ask if their deep cultural knowledge is useful for today is misguided and ignorant. Present day India is damaged badly by recent colonization, internally corrupt and in many ways ruled by foreign interests opposed to its basic culture. But if we look deeply into the storehouse of ancient knowledge that the original culture possessed, we will find a legacy profoundly useful for the world we live in today.

Daily Bell: Did ancient Indians consort with aliens and travel through time or to other dimensions?

Jeffrey Armstrong: The cosmology of India describes our universe as having fourteen parallel realities on multiple levels, all existing and intersecting within the material realm in which we are currently living.

One of those levels is called the Deva realm. The Deva realm is supposedly the home of the beings who actually conduct the laws of nature to which we are subject. This view of Divine helpers is much misunderstood as the so-called many gods or also as demi-gods, but in India they were never viewed as God, gods, demi-gods or in competition with God. They were, instead, viewed as souls (or more accurately atmas) like us, but living on another plane of material reality and performing specific jobs as administrators of the laws of nature. So, gods is the wrong word for many reasons, the main one being it implies ‘God,’ which is not an Indian word in the first place. These beings are called Devas, meaning beings who ‘work in the light’ assisting the Supreme Being by enforcing the laws of nature that allow the universe to function as it does.

Different yet similar to us, Devas are viewed in India, by analogy, much as someone who works in the passport department giving out visas. Devas give out the passports (enforcing the laws of Nature) and we are people using and receiving the passports (obeying the laws of Nature).

So as for the alien question, it was always the view in India that there are other dimensions of intelligent life in our universe who communicate with humans and that the Devas specifically are the intelligences operating behind the laws of Nature. But the Vedic culture wouldn’t have described these beings as aliens in the way we currently think of aliens, as coming from another planet in a metal ship, parking their ship (or crashing their ship in Roswell) et cetera. The Vedas describe infinitely multiple universes filled with many Earth-like and other diverse planets and many kinds of intelligent beings living in these other dimensions, some in contact with this realm.

The closest modern analogs are found in some of the theories of quantum physics, one being string theory, which suggests there are something like eleven parallel realities that are running simultaneously with ours. This idea in physics, of parallel realities crisscrossing, is undeniably reminiscent of the ancient teachings from India.

Finally, beyond these many material realms, the Vedas state that there is an eternal Transcendental realm or abode which, though non-material, makes periodic visits to our physical plane here on Earth. The Transcendental is not considered a material realm and thus represents yet another form of visitation that sometimes takes place. In the Vedas, these intentional visitations from the Transcendental are called Avatars – literally the descent of higher beings from the Transcendental to the material realms.

Daily Bell: How did such a powerful civilization perish and why?

Jeffrey Armstrong: By a definition given in the Vedas, everything within matter changes and is in flux, eternally. Specifically, younger, more physically vital cultures from the cold climates came in with a new power, technology and energy that was able to, let’s say, exploit the situation of a diverse and cooperative India that had also become somewhat corrupt and decrepit. Ancient India is probably the poster child for a diverse, complex, cooperative society that by this definition allowed a lot of bio-diversity. Ironically, that was actually a weakness when Europeans came in and wanted to conquer India, to rape and pillage her wealth or to religiously convert the population, as with Islam and Christianity. After all, might does not make right.

Daily Bell: We believe the West is afflicted by money power – a group of wealthy families that want to centralize control over the world and are causing misery. How does your philosophy account for this?

Jeffrey Armstrong: The philosophy of India is very clear. We human beings are here with the ability to utilize our free will and the spectrum is anywhere from enlightened to ‘endarkened.’ The enlightened end of the spectrum is where the laws of Nature reside, and is called the Deva view. The ‘endarkened’ view is the philosophy of the so-called Asuras, who are always against the enlightened way of being. We humans can choose to cooperate for the good of all and align ourselves with the Devic view or we can choose to be entirely selfish and only concerned for the personal gain and pleasure of a few. The dark Asuric choice brings fear, destruction, chaos, exploitation and is always imposed by a small uncaring minority, enslaving the masses and farming them like animals to steal their life energy. All the Vedic stories show this human potential for abuse of free will and the problems it can create.

The Indian epics are rife with classic conflicts involving those who care only for themselves, subvert the laws of nature, create artificial inorganic societies, cannibalize other living entities and make a few people very wealthy and powerful at the expense of large numbers of innocent people.

It is the Avatars who come to fight against these dark beings. So anything like a global world government or a single global power or technology that subverts a freedom-based and sustainable reality with a manufactured and degrading pseudo-reality is considered, in the Vedic way of thinking, as Asuric, or against the light, against truth and blind to the good of all. The likelihood of such groups being out there is considerable. They are only acting in their selfish interest and do not care if they cause harm to large numbers of people. Ironically, the Vedas make it very clear that massive so-called wealth is actually most efficiently and easily acquired by literally not caring at all about sucking the life-force out of people and the Earth.

Daily Bell: What is the fusion between “Western technology and Eastern wisdom [that] offers a revolutionary new vision for multiculturalism and responsible expansion?”

Jeffrey Armstrong: The most scientific language that exists on our planet is Sanskrit. The Sanskrit language has four thousand grammatical rules, making it more precise than either Greek or Latin. Sanskrit by its sheer specificity explains why the citizens of India have never made a wide distinction between material science and spiritual science. Sanskrit also helps explain how a so-called primitive, ignorant and Pagan people were able to so rapidly take over the IT industry. Behind Sanskrit is a temperament that is not against science but rather weds science and our spiritual nature together into a single important subject: Divine Intelligence. The key principal here is that the original culture of India thinks in the longest possible cycles and believes that we are not supposed to brutally exploit the resources of the planet, the non-renewable resources of the planet, let alone control or enslave people in the process. We are supposed to use our scientific and technological abilities to work in harmony with the laws of nature.

This is based on the belief that nature is intelligent, conscious, purposeful, and not random – and that the natural order of the universe is to be supported by us, not subverted by us. In the future, if we are fortunate, the technological capabilities that have now been developed will be wedded with a renewable idea of energy and we will stop exploiting the non-renewable energy resources of our planet and use our abilities to create a recycling, renewable and therefore a good-for-the-future way of living on the planet. Because right now, in so many ways, from energy to money, we are living as if there will be no future – and we will certainly leave a terrible mess for our children given what is being done. Regardless of what we see today, India’s teachings have always stood for a renewable and cooperative relationship with the resources of the universe and the freedom of individuals.

Daily Bell: You write of your views “this will help take our success beyond the present-day definitions of a profit-only marketplace.” How so?

Jeffrey Armstrong: The large corporation as we know and define it now generally has a financial responsibility (which encompasses most of its other responsibilities) to its Board of Directors, only to bring in profit. It has the rights of an individual with no moral responsibilities.

Corporations are still based on the colonial ethos that we can go out and harm the rest of the world as long as we bring the results back to our own country. These giant corporations become ‘too big to fail,’ are often deeply subsidized by taxpayer money, are products of the State in many nefarious ways and often have a revolving door of positions and lobbyists between themselves and government. Of course this isn’t good for the planet and it creates animosity among many groups. Given the immense powers of technology, this rape and pillage attitude will inevitably lead to more and more war, more destruction and misery, and more debt. It continues at a rapid pace right now with the corporate world trying to own more and more resources like, for instance, water, with the idea that individuals or corporations should be able to own non-renewable, life-sustaining resources, neither of which is acceptable morally, as history has shown and the Vedas have warned.

This robber baron mentality needs to be replaced by a new mentality. I call it the CCO and every corporation should have one – the Chief Conscience Officer. Why? Because as I said, and as it is said in the Vedas, massive wealth in the material world is most easily acquired via the exploitation of both resources and people – and is therefore always tempting to certain beings. Ideologies aside, without compassion and corporation, there is no well-being.

Daily Bell: What is the ancient Yoga philosophy and how does it teach valuable skills that are applicable to all areas of life?

Jeffrey Armstrong: The purpose of Yoga is two-fold. One is the purpose to live in harmony with the laws of nature. The second is to empower each individual spiritual being to be autonomous and ultimately to be able to fly their airplane, (their divine consciousness), back to the Transcendental realm from which they originally came. This leads to a political viewpoint that says our education should maximize as many human beings as possible to achieve their highest human potential and not put them in positions of bondage where they are degraded in any means whatsoever. The yogic ethos is that we should arrange life so that, as far as is possible, human beings are not degraded in consciousness by performing their work but have the greatest possible opportunity to remain conscious of their true, Divine Nature, which will lead them as far as possible in that direction. All of this, by definition, has to be accomplished without the use of intimidation, forced-conversion or coercion.

Daily Bell: You write, “The real treasures of the East weren’t jewels, spices or exotic perfumes – but the amazing treasure house of sacred and universal knowledge. This knowledge, increasingly validated by modern science, is now being embraced by leading edge corporations, professionals and leaders throughout the world.” What are some examples?

Jeffrey Armstrong: As I mentioned earlier, what is unique about the library of India is that it was recorded in the Sanskrit language, which has not degraded over time to any significant extent. This is unlike other religions and spiritual paths and bodies of knowledge that were written in languages which have often become obsolete or are no longer clearly understood. Thus, the treasure house of knowledge that I am talking about goes back accurately for thousands and thousands of years. The literature contains the precise understandings of the ancients and is still being transmitted by traditional teachers in India to the modern world.

It is well known that Greek advancements in knowledge have affected our world for a couple thousand years. Socrates, the famous Greek philosopher, was the teacher of Plato. Socrates of course claims to have been enlightened by the teachings of Pythagoras who preceded him by 200 years. It is also historically known and should be remembered that Pythagoras studied in India; he was a vegetarian, virtually unheard of anywhere else, and learned the philosophy of India and taught it in Greece.

So if we are to accept the well-known saying in academia that western philosophy is simply footnotes to Plato, it is then logical to say that the knowledge of India has been leaking into our culture for thousands of years. That this is not understood is a shame because it’s both extremely exciting and a huge aspect of our human heritage. The Abrahamic religions, however, especially Islam and Christianity, have been very resistant to this idea because of their own institutional agendas. So knowledge from India that leaked in to other cultures has often remained either hidden or was simply incorporated into western thought without credit to India.

The so-called American ‘transcendentalists’ – Emerson and Thoreau et cetera – are one tiny example of this. Today – and for the last 100 years and perhaps especially the last 50 years – the influence of ancient India is being revealed in full force and clarity. As part of that knowledge are a number of things, including the empowerment of women as seen clearly in the view of a feminine as well as masculine Divine and the consciousness that the Earth is in very tangible ways a living entity described as Gaia, Bhumi (In Sanskrit) or Mother Earth.

The awareness of how we eat and how we live in our bodies is also vital to the Vedic philosophy and Yoga. It is also a viewpoint promoting bio-diversity both personally and sustainably. Firstly, individuals should never be coerced into a particular spiritual viewpoint. Secondly, we are living on a single organism, planet Earth, and it is in everyone’s best interest to cooperate with one another since we ultimately all breathe the same air and drink the same water. This is initially accomplished by developing a vision of ALL living beings as divine in nature.

Finally, it is a bio-diverse vision that both creates and supports an open Internet, considered by many technological idealists to be one of the great hopes of our planet trying to find a way to know and cooperate with each other instead of being in a competitive and destructive relationship. If we can keep the Internet open, then that is one of the key places where bio-diverse ideas in a potentially open and cooperative environment can meet and are meeting.

This interview, for example, with less than mainstream ideas, could be distributed in a short time to millions of eager listeners who hope that this is possible. That positive and idealistic ethos also lives in some corporations, more each day – of course, not all of them are robber barons. Indeed, there are so many negative invisible and unseen forces that exist in the background for the purpose of manipulating our economy, our private lives, our food source and what is defined as medicine and so forth. For those invisible forces to be brought out into the open requires communication environments that allow for that possibility. This publication is an example and there are many others. Monopolies are dangerous in government, corporations and ideas. The saying in Sanskrit is, ‘Satyam eva jayate- the truth will always eventually prevail’.

Daily Bell: You write, “We are all becoming global citizens. The next evolutionary step requires us to blend the advances of modern science with the time-honored secrets of ancient wisdom to create a sustainable and successful future throughout the world. Does this involve one-world governance as well? Who governs?

Jeffrey Armstrong: The answer to that again, in clear English, straight from the Vedas, is NOTHING COULD BE WORSE THAN A ONE WORLD GOVERNMENT. Extreme centralization – a single, domineering and autocratic control-based system is entirely antithetical to the Vedic way of thinking. We need regional wisdom at every level in order to interact successfully and cooperatively with the laws of nature, the environment and individual local needs as they are playing out in a given area. Regional and bio-diverse management combined with a global awareness of ourselves as part of the universe, as part of a larger planetary perspective, is the ideal. The goal of government is to serve, not to create a bureaucracy that is a burden on everyone and helps create a group of robber barons who serve only themselves, under some false flag of so-called freedom.

Daily Bell: You write, “According to Yoga philosophy there are a few easily recognizable body-types that determine many of our specific behavior patterns. Every professional will benefit from learning how to recognize these important body types. Once you’ve learned the body types, you’ll know who you’re talking to and how to communicate with them effectively.” What are these body types?

Jeffrey Armstrong: These body types are the basis of the practical everyday lifestyle science of the culture of India. It is rooted in the notion of universal elements, just as our modern science has divided matter into the atomic periodic table of elements. The problem is we can’t see those minute atomic elements in our day-to-day life, even though we are composed of them. In ancient times there was (and still is) a more practical approach using the table of the five visible elements of nature. These elements are earth, water, fire, air and space, and they are visible to everyone using their perceptive senses.

Everything is composed of these five ingredients, which are present in a specific ratio in all of our bodies. That proportionality or ratio can be translated to mean that each one of us has a certain body ‘type’ and that body is our vehicle. Each vehicle has a particular nature that is best suited for particular functions. I have described this in some detail in my book: ‘God/Goddess the Astrologer, Soul, Karma, and Reincarnation: How we continually create our own destiny’.

We as individuals are empowered by understanding what particular kind of body we are inhabiting, just as we need to know the make and model of our car in order to maintain it properly. This then forms the basis of the preventive, healing and organic science that is called Ayurvedic Medicine. Ayurveda, or the science of the life force, is based on knowing our nature and then using the natural remedies and foods that enhance and balance that nature. Because we all have a physical nature that is knowable, this knowing allows us to cooperate with Mother Nature, of whom we are a part. Conversely, not knowing our specific body type causes needless friction and damage to our bodies and minds and ultimately obscures a relatively easy understanding of each other’s particular physical and mental nature and needs.

Daily Bell: These would be called the 3 Doshas?

Jeffrey Armstrong: Yes these would be the 3 Doshas, which give rise to the 10 basic body types. This means the particular mix of the five elements, in other words the characteristic design elements of each person’s body/mind complex. We could also call this the recognizable form of one’s underlying genetic structure. As an example, if you had a Maserati and took it to a mechanic who said: ‘Sure, I can repair your car, all cars are all the same’, you would never believe him. It’s a bad diagnosis, and currently there are a startling number of medical conditions in hospitals that are actually doctor or pharmaceutically induced. One of the reasons is an unnecessary ignorance of the Ayurvedic body types, which means modern physicians simply do not know the make and model of their patient’s body. For this reason, modern allopathic medicine, which is undeniably brilliant in repairing serious trauma, is not preventive. Combining that ignorance with Big Pharma and their excessive and relentless use of chemical-based pharmaceutical medicines instead of using either nothing or, when needed, safe, organic herbs, causes a great deal of suffering and unnecessary environmental damage. Ayurveda says: ‘Live according to your body type,’ let organic, nutritious food be your medicine and use pure herbal remedies as far as possible. Then allopathic and pharmaceutical medicines and surgery will become what they should be, remarkable last resorts.

Daily Bell: What are the “Vedas” and Vedic values?

Jeffrey Armstrong: The word Veda means ‘to see’, and gave us our modern word, video. Its root is ‘vid’, and from that comes, wit, meaning ‘knowledge’ or ‘what we know,’ so Veda, first of all means the knowledge that we need in order to exist and fulfill our purpose for existing. That knowledge is considered to be eternal and to co-exist with both this world and with the eternal Transcendental world. A student of the Veda, or the study of the knowledge of India, would be studying a library of knowledge. There is not one, single dogmatic book, which takes precedence over the others. To be a student of the Veda then, is to be a student of a library of knowledge concerned with all subjects that support a sacred lifestyle and our true spiritual nature. That library has been passed down from antiquity and is thought by practitioners to have emanated from the Divine mind of the Supreme Being. It is the many ‘users manuals’ for the material world.

Daily Bell: What was the vision of the Hindu Vedic Sages?

Jeffrey Armstrong: The word Hindu came about when the people of Persia were describing the people on the other side of the Sindhu (Indus) River (India). They could not pronounce the river’s name properly, saying the ‘s’ as an ‘h’ and thus they called the people on the other side the Hindus. Technically, Hindu is now used as a word to describe the whole culture of India but it is more specifically a generic term meaning all of those people who probably are taking some inspiration from the Veda – so card – carrying Hindus would really also be card – carrying members of the Vedic library. But that doesn’t tell us – which books within the library an individual favors. This choosing within the library is why there is such diversity in the Hindu Dharma or culture, and consequently confusion over what a ‘Hindu” is or believes. The Sanskrit word dharma means learning the essential nature of everything, including your true self-nature, and then using it all accordingly. Knowing your own nature and the nature of everything and using it according to its Divinely intended purpose, is the basis and goal of the Vedic Hindu Dharma Culture.

Daily Bell: Expand on the word Avatar and the relevance of the original Avatars of India for today’s world?

Jeffrey Armstrong: The word Avatar is two Sanskrit words: ‘ava‘ which means to descend and ‘tara‘ which means to heal, restore or replenish. The concept of ‘Avatar’ is different than that of a Prophet. The Abrahamic traditions of Judaism, Christianity and Islam are considered Prophetic religions, meaning a human acted as a mouthpiece for some version of the Supreme Being. Moses and Mohammed are considered prophets, not Avatars. Even Jesus, by strict definition, is not an Avatar. Avatar means the actual appearance in a bodily form here on earth of the Supreme Reality, the Supreme Being, variously called God, Allah, Jehovah, etc. Those are some of the names that the Middle Eastern tribes have used for this Ultimate Being. In India that Being has thousands of names but is ultimately called ‘Bhagavan‘, which means the “Person of the Supreme Being, the One who has all the possible Divine qualities.”

According to the historical record of India, that Supreme Being has come to Earth twice, and these visits or descents are described in detail in the two longest poems that exist on our planet, both written in Sanskrit. The Ramayana (24,000 verses) and the Mahabharata (100,000 verses), are the two great Avatar epics of India. The well-known Vedic text, the Bhagavad Gita is 700 verses taken from the Mahabharata, wherein Bhagavan Krishna explains in summary all the key spiritual teachings of the Vedic library.

The descent of the Supreme Being, aka, GOD, to Earth, takes place with a large group of friends, to teach the purpose of our existence, to fight the previously mentioned Asuras who, indeed, were trying to make a repressive and destructive ‘one world’ government, at the expense of sustainability, compassion and individual freedom.

Daily Bell: Perhaps they ought to visit again. Is the world heading toward collapse? What will be the outcome?

Jeffrey Armstrong: It is inevitable that we are headed toward some kind of collapse or major contraction because we are violating the primary law, even of modern science, which is the law of entropy. The two laws of thermodynamics – that matter is neither created nor destroyed and always going from a higher to lower state of energy – were initially described in the Vedas as the laws of Nature, and were called ‘The Gunas.’ The Gunas are a description of the cyclic states and processes of matter.

The point is, as long as we are simply extracting energy from the world around us and not replenishing or giving back or finding balance, then we are inevitably creating a world that is headed for collapse, population imbalance and exploitation. We are doing this through factory-farming animals, by factory farming the land. We are doing it by not recycling correctly, by not replenishing the growth and vegetation of the planet. We are doing it by an exploitation-only attitude in economics, by a currency and a monetary system that is not rooted in real, sustainable value, by the manipulation of human beings at the most fundamental level in their real estate, their property, their resources, the water they drink, etc.

Because exploitation and the irresponsible use of power is the fastest way to acquire wealth at the expense of others, the Vedic culture says that anyone who has great power has great responsibility and is accountable to use that power for the well-being of everyone. This idea is clearly not being exercised sufficiently on the planet. This process is based on the ancient Vedic principle of Karma – that every action has an equal and opposite reaction both with matter and in the moral actions of humans. I describe this in depth in my book ‘Karma – The Ancient Science of Cause and Effect‘. The resources of the Earth are meant for the good of all, they do not truly or ultimately belong to anyone – as even death reminds us. So right now, we are on a crash course with destiny and the karmic laws of nature as a result of our incorrect attitude toward Mother Earth. We are stealing the future and wealth (and therefore freedom) of our children and their children by our actions in the present, and leaving them a pile of waste and debt as our legacy, instead of protecting their future.

Daily Bell: Why is ancient Hindu knowledge being suppressed, if it is?

Jeffrey Armstrong: The honesty of the Hindu knowledge is that we are accountable to, to put it colloquially, Mother Nature, who is Divinely intelligent. The world that we live in, however, is really being controlled by a variety of interests that are negatively polarized. In my opinion, the knowledge of India has been and is still being repressed so that certain interests can continue colonizing both India and the planet, and to prevent it being a viable alternative to more aggressive religious and political worldviews.

The deeply spiritual, cooperative message of the Hindu Vedic Dharma Culture would shine light on the various selfish and harmful activities of the powerful interests who are harming the world. The rapid spread of Yoga in recent years shows that previous attitudes of repressing information are not nearly as effective in our current world of global communication. Freedom of speech is a crucial right to defend at this dangerous moment in history.

Daily Bell: Why does the modern power elite not want the world to know about ancient Hindu civilization?

Jeffrey Armstrong: At the crux of both of the epics and of the Avatar’s descent to Earth is the message that anyone who has power has responsibility. This is the one message that those who are abusing power do not want to hear. The concept of stewardship had its home in India. Anyone who was a ruler in India had the responsibility of caring for every living entity. The intentional degradation of human beings for personal gain is simply wrong – despite its effectiveness as a means of rapidly acquiring wealth.

It is written that many of the greatest kings and queens and dynasties in India had a rule; that before they ate a meal, they would ring a bell. The bell meant if you are hungry, we have a kitchen open where you can come and eat. We are going to eat now, but we will not eat if you are hungry. Why? Not because of ideology, but because massive wealth and power is generally acquired on the backs of others. So, I would challenge any leaders of the world to ring a bell in your country and if no one is hungry, unsafe or uncared for, then you can have your dinner. You should listen carefully to what the Avatars and honorable ancient leaders have said is your responsibility as a so-called leader.

Daily Bell: Recommend some books and websites for further study, please.

Jeffrey Armstrong: Too many to mention, but if you go to my website, http://www.jeffreyarmstrong.com, I have made a list of useful people and sites, and I have personally given many lectures on these topics which reader’s can request. There are numerous sources of information on India and her ancient culture but the genuine teachers of her wisdom should all lead you back to the Vedic Library, grounding their opinions in that ancient wisdom.

Daily Bell: What is next for you? Where do you go from here?

Jeffrey Armstrong: Well, my goal is to reach a billion people with this knowledge that pushes for individual autonomy and empowerment in the most positive sense of those terms. I believe that a real problem is that good people who have good intentions often do not have the knowledge-tools necessary to give them a scope of vision and daily empowerment that will help them to implement the goodness and greatness that’s inside of them.

Even though the journey of life is cyclic and eternal, I believe we are here today at a sort of tipping point and that this point will be turned positively by autonomous and knowledgeable individuals who use their eternal free will to choose a universal view that is for the good of all. We don’t need more ignorant armies, better weapons or sadly victimized civilian populations. We need a large body of informed and compassionate citizens from diverse cultures and viewpoints. Humans, through non-violent enlightenment on many levels and subjects, can change the world. I am ever hopeful that this is possible. We do NOT need more technology, we need smarter technology and a less-is-more attitude (less debt, less waste, less violence) to build a sustainable future.

Daily Bell: Anything else you want to mention?

Jeffrey Armstrong: I always like to stress the importance of broadening the scope of one’s thinking to envision the idea that all the living entities on our planet have a right to be here, learning and growing happily. Be a philosopher and poet. Become broad-minded. Be local but don’t live in a small bubble of reality ignoring the larger world. Inform yourself. Try not to become a Darwinian human, believing only in the survival of the so-called strong or well-armed, try to become a feeling being, an empathic human feeling the pain of others and helping them where you can, to heal.

Mahatma Gandhi once said, ‘the Supreme Being has provided enough for everyone’s need but not enough for everyone’s greed.’ Certainly we know that not everyone will have the same amount as everyone else but surely a world can be built in which more people instead of less people have enough, and our children have a future not oppressed by waste, debt, propaganda and tyranny. The Hindu Vedic Dharma says that exploring ‘Inner Space‘ is much more important than exploring ‘Outer Space‘, while always hoping that all may be fed, protected and find peace within and in the world. Hari Om! May this knowledge bless all.

Daily Bell: Thank you for sharing your time so graciously. It has been most interesting.

Jeffrey Armstrong: Thank you for the opportunity.

Finally, after centuries of (western) deception, at least some people are talking sense. It must be disappointing for those who believe that “the British civilized us” and that perhaps include our esteemed Prime Minister, Mr Manmohan Singh.

One reason why our education syllabus needs to be rewritten so that our children start knowing the truth from the beginning.

But then, if it is pre-Islamic, Hindu (or Vedic) glories, our secular historians are not much excited and our government believe that such truth is a threat to ‘communal harmony’. 

  

On the Origins of Western Law and Western Civilization (in the Indus Valley)

Robin Bradley Kar
University of Illinois College of Law
October 18, 2010

Abstract:     
Western Law and Western Civilization are often said to be parts of a distinctive tradition, which differentiates them from their counterparts in the “East,” and explains many of their special capacities and characteristics. On one common version of this story, as propounded by legal scholars such as Harold Berman, Western Civilization begins with a return to the texts of three more primordial traditions: those of ancient Greece, Rome, and Israel. The basic story that Western Civilization finds its origins in ancient Greek, Roman and Hebrew culture is, however, so familiar and so pervasive that it has rarely – until recently – been questioned in the West.

There is nevertheless a deep sense in which this story is incomplete, and even potentially misleading. This article – along with its sequels – argues that if we are genuinely interested in understanding our origins, in a way that will shed light on why the West has exhibited such distinctive capacities for large-scale human civilization and the rule of law, then the story we commonly tell ourselves starts abruptly in the middle, and leaves out some of the most formative (and potentially transformative) dimensions of the truth. Western Law and Western Civilization are not just the outgrowths of three particularly creative cultures, which straddled the transition from human prehistory into human history, and developed in either Southeastern Europe or the Near East. Rather, the West is descended from a much deeper cultural tradition, which extends all the way back to some of our first human forays out of hunter-gatherer modes of subsistence and into settled agricultural living. The tradition in question began not in Greece, Rome, or Israel, however, but rather in the Indus Valley – which is a region that spans the Northwestern portions of the Indian subcontinent. Our failure to know this about ourselves has limited our self-understanding in critical respects, and has prevented us from realizing useful aspects of our traditions – including, in some cases, aspects that make them work so well for large-scale human civilization.

In addition to arguing for this thesis, this article addresses some of its implications for the (1) legal origins literature, (2) comparative law, and (3) the promotion of development and the rule of law.

  

Constitution 1,000 years ago

 T.S.SUBRAMANIAM

 A perfect electoral system existed, inscriptions found in Uthiramerur reveal.

 Photos: S. Thanthoni

 

 

  

  

 

OUTSTANDING DOCUMENT: The mantapa of the Vaikuntaperumal temple.

 

It may be hard to believe that nearly 1,100 years ago, a village had a perfect electoral system and a written Constitution prescribing the mode of elections. It was inscribed on the walls of the village assembly (grama sabha mandapa), which was a rectangular structure made of granite slabs. “This inscription, dated around 920 A.D. in the reign of Parantaka Chola, is an outstanding document in the history of India,” says Dr. R. Nagaswamy, former Director, Tamil Nadu Department of Archaeology, referring to Uthiramerur in Chingleput district.

“It is a veritable written Constitution of the village assembly that functioned 1,000 years ago,” Dr. Nagaswamy says in his book, “Uthiramerur, the Historic Village in Tamil Nadu.” The book, in both Tamil and English, has been published by the Tamil Arts Academy, Chennai.

Dr. Nagaswamy says: “It [the inscription] gives astonishing details about the constitution of wards, the qualification of candidates standing for elections, the disqualification norms, the mode of election, the constitution of committees with elected members, the functions of [those] committees, the power to remove the wrong-doer, etc…”


 

 

 

 

 

And that is not all. “On the walls of the mandapa are inscribed a variety of secular transactions of the village, dealing with administrative, judicial, commercial, agricultural, transportation and irrigation regulations, as administered by the then village assembly, giving a vivid picture of the efficient administration of the village society in the bygone ages.” The villagers even had the right to recall the elected representatives if they failed in their duty!

It has a 1,250-year history

Uthiramerur has a 1,250-year history. It is situated in Kanchipuram district, about 90 km from Chennai. The Pallava king Nandivarman II established it around 750 A.D. It did exist earlier as a brahmin settlement. It was ruled by the Pallavas, the Cholas, the Pandyas, the Sambuvarayars, the Vijayanagara Rayas and the Nayaks. It has three important temples, the Sundara Varadaraja Perumal temple, the Subramanya temple and the Kailasanatha temple. Plans are under way for the conservation and restoration of the Kailasanatha temple, which is in ruins.

All the three temples have numerous inscriptions — those of the great Raja Raja Chola (985-1015 A.D.), his able son, Rajendra Chola and the Vijayanagar emperor Krishnadeva Raya. Both Rajendra Chola and Krishnadeva Raya visited Uthiramerur.

Uthiramerur, built as per the canons of the agama texts, has the village assembly mandapa exactly at the centre and all the temples are oriented with reference to the mandapa.

R. Vasanthakalyani, Chief Epigraphist-cum-Instructor and R. Sivanandam, epigraphist, both belonging to the Tamil Nadu Department of Archaeology, said that while village assemblies might have existed prior to the period of Parantaka Chola, it was during his period that the village administration was honed into a perfect system through elections. “About 1,100 years ago, during the period of Paranataka Chola, Uthiramerur had an elected village panchayat system, which was a step ahead of the modern day democratic system,” she said.

According to Dr. Sivanandam, there were several places in Tamil Nadu where inscriptions are available on temple walls about the prevalence of village assemblies. These villages included Manur near Tirunelveli, Tiruninravur near Chennai, Manimangalam near Tambaram, Dadasamudram near Kanchipuram, Sithamalli and Thalaignayiru near Thanjavur, Jambai near Tirukovilur and Ponnamaravathy near Pudukottai. “But it is at Uthiramerur on the walls of the village assembly (mandapa) itself, that we have the earliest inscriptions with complete information about how the elected village assembly functioned,” said Dr. Sivanandam. It is learnt that the entire village, including the infants, had to be present at the village assembly mandapa at Uthiramerur when the elections were held, pointed out Vasanthakalyani. Only the sick and those who had gone on a pilgrimage were exempt.

 

 

 

 

 

The Tamil inscriptions elaborate on the election procedure followed several centuries ago.

There were committees for the maintenance of irrigation tanks, roads, to provide relief during drought, testing of gold and so on. Sivanandam himself has written a book in Tamil called, “The Archaeological Handbook of Kanchipuram district,” (published by the Tamil Nadu Department of Archaeology in 2008) in which he says the original sabha mandapa’s superstructure was made of timber and bricks. After the superstructure collapsed and only the base of the mandapa made of granite slabs remained, Kulotunga Chola I built a Vishnu temple on the base towards the end of the 11th century.

The village sabha mandapa, with its invaluable inscriptions, is now called Vaikuntaperumal temple. Dr. Nagaswamy says: “The village assembly of Uttaramerur drafted the Constitution for the elections. The salient features were as follows: the village was divided into 30 wards, one representative elected for each. Specific qualifications were prescribed for those who wanted to contest. The essential criteria were age limit, possession of immovable property and minimum educational qualification. Those who wanted to be elected should be above 35 years of age and below 70…”

Only those who owned land, that attracted tax, could contest. Another interesting stipulation, according to Dr. Nagaswamy, was that such owners should have possessed a house built on legally-owned site (not on public poromboke). A person serving in any of the committees could not contest again for the next three terms, each term lasting a year. Elected members, who suffered disqualification, were those who accepted bribes, misappropriated others’ property, committed incest or acted against public interest.

 

Also read:

India – The Mother of Western Civilization

Sylvain Levi (1863-1935), French scholar, Orientalist and Indologist:

 ….from Persia to the Chinese sea, from the icy regions of Siberia to Islands of Java and Borneo, India has propagated her beliefs, her tales, and her civilization!

Pierre Sonnerat (1748 – 1814), French naturalist and Explorer:

.. India, in her splendor, gave religions and laws to all the other peoples; Egypt and Greece owed to her both their fables and their wisdom…. Ancient India gave to to the world its religions and philosophies…. it is known that Pythagoras went to India to study under Brahmins, who were the most enlightened of human beings

Friedrich Majer (1771-1818), English statesman:  

It will no longer remain to be doubted that the priests of Egypt and the sages of Greece have drawn directly from the original well of India,

Francois Marie Arouet Voltaire (1694-1774), French writer and philosopher:

I am convinced that everything has come down to us from the banks of the Ganges, – astronomy, astrology, metapsychosis,.. It is very important to note that some 2,500 years ago at the least Pythagoras went from Samos to the Ganges to learn geometry…But he would certainly not have undertaken such a strange journey had the reputation of the Brahmins’ science not been long established in Europe…It did not behove us, who were only savages and barbarians when these Indians were civilised and learned, to dispute their antiquity.

 

India – The Mother of Western Civilization

 Radhasyam Brahmachari

 

Whenever the Western scholars begin a discussion on any branch of their knowledge such as literature, philosophy, science, mathematics, astronomy etc., they always start from Greece. Thus they try to convince that the Greek or Hellenic civilization is the fountainhead of today’s Occidental wisdom and people like Aristotle, Plato, Socrates, Pythagoras etc. were the authors of their cultural heritage. In this way they try to project that the present Western civilization grew independently in Greece and hence it was not indebted to civilization of any other group of people.

But Sir William Jones, the founder of the Asiatic Society, Calcutta, put a big question mark on the above Western notion. Sir Jones was appointed a judge of the Supreme Court in Calcutta by the East India Company and he therefore came to Calcutta in 1773. After day’s work, he started to learn Sanskrit in the evening and appointed Pundit Jagannath Tarkapanchanan to assist him as a private tutor. As soon as he entered the vast treasure of Sanskrit literature, Jones could discover many similarities between Sanskrit and the ancient European languages like Greek, Celtic, old German, old Saxon and so on. He could also notice that many Sanskrit words had entered Greek and Latin vocabulary without little alteration. He could detect that the English ‘mother’ has been derived gradually from ‘modar’ in old English and old Saxon, ‘moder’ in old German, ‘mathir’ in old Irish, ‘motre’ in old Albenian, ‘mair’ in old Armenian, ‘mater’ in Latin, ‘meter’ in Greek and ultimately from ‘matri’ in Sanskrit.

In a similar manner, today’s English word ‘father’ has been derived from ‘fader’ in old English, ‘faeder’ in old Saxon, ‘fater’ in old Armenian, ‘pater’ in Latin and Greek and ultimately from ‘pitri’ in Sanskrit. In a similar, ‘brother’ from Sanskrit ‘bhratri’; ‘vagina’ from Sanskrit ‘bhagni’; ignite, ignition etc. from Sanskrit ‘agni’; ‘night’ from  Sanskrit ‘nakta’ and so on. A comprehensive list of such similarities is so vast that it given birth to a new branch of knowledge called Comparative Philology.

But vanity and European pride of Sir Jones prevented him to confess the truth that Sanskrit was the mother of all the European languages including his mother tongue English. So he had to invent a trick to save his face and said that all the European languages and Sanskrit had been derived from a still older language, which has now become obsolete. Thus he tried to establish a theory that the said older language is themother of Sanskrit and all the European languages of today and hence the Sanskrit and the European languages belong to a same group called Indo-European group of languages. To make his theory credible, he also said that a group of people, perhaps used to live in Asia-minor and speak in that language. This hint was later on utilized by Max Muller and according to him the said group of people were Aryans who finally scattered over a vast stretch of land and built up a civilization known as Arian civilization. And thus he laid the foundation stone of the so called Aryan Invasion Theory, which has now been rejected by most of the historians of the world.

So long India was under the domination of the British, they could successfully distort the thought process of the people of this country by introducing all these lies into school and college curricula. As a result, many of the so called educated Indian still believe that a group or race of people called Aryan, came from outside India nearly 2500 or 3000 B.C. and they occupied this country by defeating its sons of the soil, and at the same time, they destroyed the Harappan civilization of the Dravidians. But the discovery of the ancient River Saraswati has shattered all those fabricated stories of the Western scholars. World famous archaeologist Sir Laurelstein excavated nearly 1600 sites on the bank of the River Saraswati and conclusively proved that the Saraswati Civilization was a part of the vast Vedic Civilization and the civilization now known a the Mahenjo-daro or Harappan Civilization was simply a part of the Vedic Saraswati Civilization. Many has also been able to decipher the arappanHarappan scripts and succeeded to prove that it was nothing but an ancient version of Brahmi and the language of the text was Sanskrit.

So, it has become evident today that the said Aryan Invasion Theory was a fraud and had been invented by the European scholars and later on propagated by the colonial British rulers simply to subdue the people of this country and also to establish their illegal occupation of India on an ethical ground. It has also become evident today that the all the European languages, which, according to William Jones were the members of the so called Indo-European group of languages, had been derived from Sanskrit. Furthermore, scholars also agree that, migration deed take place, not to India but, from India to almost all over the world and these Indian immigrants carried Sanskrit with them. The also agree that the word Europe was derived from Sanskrit ‘surupa’ and these Indian immigrants were the authors of  ancient civilizations in Egypt, Mesopotamia, Iran, Rome, Greece, North and South America and so on.

Every Indian should be proud to know that Parasya, the original name of Persia or Iran, was derived from Sanskrit ‘parasu’ the battle axe which Lord Parasu Ram, an Incarnation of Lord Vishnu, used to carry.  He should also be glad to know that the great Roman Empire was the creation of immigrant ksatriyas of India, who settled in Italy and founded the city of Rome, named after Lord Rama, the king of ayodhya. One should also notice that in Italian it is spelled Roma, not Rome, still today. According to E. Pococke, originally the name of the city was Rama and later on, Sanskrit long ‘a’ was replaced by ‘o’. There is another city in Italy, Ravenna, which many believe, has been derived from Ravana, the king of Sri Lanka. Ancient Romans used to wear dhoti and cremate the dead. Still today one finds numerous statues of Lord Shiva and Lord Ganesha and the most spectacular statue of Lord Shiva is standind beside a public fountain at a road square in Bologna. Roman priests were called ‘Pontiffs’ and scholars  believe that the word has been coined from Sanskrit ‘Pundit’. They are also convinced that the word ‘Vatican’ has been derived from Sanskrit ‘Vatika’.

Once upon a time, the two countries Norway and Sweden, collectively called Scandinavia, were ruled by Shri Kartikeya, son of Lord Shiva. It is well known that, Skanda was the other name of Shri Kartikeya and the land was therefore called Skandanavi. And scholars agree that today’s Scandinavia is a corrupt of Sanskrit Skandanavi. Similarly, the Caspian Sea was named after Rishi Kasyapa and words like August, Augustine, Augustus etc. were derived from Rishi Agastya. Arka is the other name of the sun and Sanskrit arka became arak in the West, just as dharma became dharma and karma became karam in Northern India. Gradually this arak became araak and finally today’s Iraq. In a similar manner, Surya the sun became today’s Syria.

It would be really perplexing to every Indian to know that Lord Krishna, the son of Devaki, became Apollo in Greece. Radhakanta is the other name of Lord Krishna and, as Radha is a woman and abala (physically weak), He is also known as Abalakanta, and this Abala gradually became Apollo in Greece. Scholars also agree that the Greek god Zeus was no other than Lord Shiva of Kailash. They also agree that early Indian settlers in Greece came from Rajagriha of Magadha (today’s Rajgir in the state of Bihar). As they migrated from Rajagriha or simply ‘griha’, were called ‘Graihkas’ or ‘Graihakos’. Through passage of time, this ‘Graihako’ became ‘Graecus’ and finally ‘Greek’. In a similar manner, Sanskrit ‘griha’ became Greece.

As said above, the early Indian settlers were from Magadh, and people from Magadh were called Madadhan in Greece. After passage of time this ‘Magadhan’ became ‘Makedan’ or ‘Macedan’, and finally ‘Macedonia’, the birth place of Alexander. Where from the name Alexander had been derived?  A man of incomparable beauty in this world is called ‘Alokasundar’ in Sanskrit and after passage of time, Sanskrit ‘Alokasundar’ became ‘Alexander’ in Greece. It may be mentioned here that there are many variations variuations in spelling of Alexander in Europe and a few of them are Alexandre, Aleksander, Aleksunder and so on, and these variations supports the above view.

Thousands of years ago people belonging to the tribe of Bhil left their dwelling place Hamman in Afghanistan and settled in Greece, where there chiefs were called Bhilpos, a corrupt of Bhilpati. Gradually this Bhilpos became Philips, the tribe to which Alexander belonged. So, it becomes evident that fore-fathers of Alexander originally were inhabitants of Hamman in Afghanistan, who later on migrated to Greece.

There is a small place called Attak lying on the bank River Indus and nearly 942 miles north of the Arabian Sea. These people, after migrating to Greece, named their new dwelling place as Attak-sthan, which after passage of time, gradually became Atakthan Or Atthan and finally Athens, the great ancient city of Greece. The migrants from Ayodhya were called Ayodhan (people of Ayodhya) in Greece. Later on, this Ayodhan became Ionan and from Ionan, names like Ionian Island, Ionian Sea were derived. These migrants from Ayodhya were also known as Cul-ait-Ram (Family of Ram), which ultimately became Call-id-Romos. Scholars believe that a group of these people, later on, migrated to Italy and founded the Roman Empire and the city of Roma. And another branch of them migrated to Peru in South America.

Shali is a kind of fine rice and desh-shali stands for the place where this kind of rice  is cultivated. Such a place of desh-shali in Greece became Thessali, a province in Greece. Himadri is the other name of Himalay, where ‘him’ stands for cold and ‘adri’ stands for a mountain. And from this ‘adri’, the name of the sea between Greece and Italy was named the Adriatic Sea. Falguni or Phalgooni was the other name of Arjuna. This Phalgooni in Greece became Phalgoonus and the settlement of the descendants of Phalgoonus was called Phalgoonia. Today, the place is called Pelagonia, which forms a part of the province of Thessali. Another name of Arjuna was Ajeya or the undefeatable. In Greece, this Ajeya became Aegeus and his descendants were called Aigaios. And from Aegeus, the adjoining sea became Aegean Sea.

The early settlers in Greece were also known as Pelasgians and scholars believe that the word was derived from Pelargos. But pelargos has several meanings. Firstly, Pelargos means sea and hence some scholars beliueve that they were called Pelasgians as those early settlers came to Greece by the sea. Secondly, ‘pelo’ means ‘to till’ and ‘argos’ means ‘land’. So, many believe that those early settlers were tillers of the land, or agricultural people. A third group of scholars believe that those early settlers came from the state of Bihar in India. In those days, Bihar was also known as Pelas, and hence they were called Pelasgians.

Why did the Indians start migrating to Greece and other Western countries in large numbers? And when? Scholars believe that, after the Kurukshetra War the Kshatriya tribes, who fought for the Kauravas and survived the War, began to migrate in large numbers to escape humiliation and persecution by the winner Kshatriyas. According to the most modern estimate, the said War was fought in 3067 B.C., and hence the said migration took place nearly 5000 years ago.

Hella is the other name of Greece and many believe that the name was coined from the mountain Hela, situated in Baluchistan in today’s Pakistan. They also believe that the people of that locality were the first among all other Indian tribes to reach Greece. The contribution of these people from Hela mountain, who were sun worshippers, played a vital role in Greek history and civilization. From this Hela, the Greek name Helios for the sun was derived. The settlement of these Hela people was called Hela-des or land of Hela, which ultimately became today’s Helados.

 There was a group of people who lived near the mouth of River Indus, who were experts in long distance sea voyage. These people worshipped snakes and hence were called ‘Phanish’ or king of snakes. Afater passage of time, they were called the Phoenicion sailors. In Greek, word ‘cori’ stands for the mouth of a river. So the people, who migrated from the mouth of Indus were called ‘cori-Indus’. Later on, this ‘cori-Indus’ became ‘Corinthus’ and their settlement became the city of Corinth.

Many believe that the name of the Caucasus mountain was derived from Kaikeyi, the mother of Prince Bharata, the younger brother of Lord Rama. Similarly the names like Christ, Christine, Christopher etc were derived from Krishna; Adamson, Adams etc. from Sanskrit ‘adim’ and  Andrew, Andrews etc. from Sanskrit ‘Indra’. Scholars agree that English ‘man’ and old English ‘mon’ were derived from Sanskrit ‘Manu’. Scholars also believe that names like Harry, Harris, Harrison etc. were corrupts of Sanskrit Hari. The renowned German scholar Max Muller was fully convinced that, ‘Max’ was a corrupt of Sanskrit ‘moksha’ and whenever he wrote a letter in Sanskrit, he used to sign it as Moksha Muller. Furthermore, during his stay at Oxford, he used to write ‘Gotirtha Nagar, in stead of Oxford. 

In Sanskrit, the word ‘kulish’ stands for lightening and Harikulish was the other name of Lord Balarama. In Greece, this ‘Harikulish’ became ‘Hercules’. Hara is the other name of Lord Shiva and, in Greece, this ‘Hara’ became ‘Haro’. Scholars also believe that the English words ‘hero’, ‘hurrah’ etc were derived from Sanskrit ‘Hara’. The English word ‘amazon’ stands for a woman warrior, or more commonly for a tall, strong and masculine woman. Scholars agree that the word was derived from ‘Uma’, the wife of Lord Shiva. In Sanskrit, ‘Umasuta’ means son of Uma. In Greece, this ‘Umasuta’ became ‘Umasuna’ or ‘Umasun’ or ‘Umasoon’ and hence ‘Umasoona’ stood for Uma’s daughter. With passage of time, ‘Umasoona’ became ‘Umazoona’ or ‘Umazona’, and ultimately “Amazon’.

In Sanskrit, ‘ap’ means water. In many places, including Northern India and Arabia, this ‘ap’ became ‘ab’, and thus the land of pancha (five) ‘ab’ became Punjab. In a similar manner, the sacred water of the well Zem Zem in Mecca became ‘ab-e- Zem Zem. Scholars believe that the name of the Russian River Ob is also a corrupt of Sanskrit ‘ap’. They also believe that the name of the River Volga was derived from Sanskrit ‘falgu’. They are also convinced that the name of the River Danube was derived from Sanskrit ‘dhanya (paddy)+ ob’ and hence it implies that once upon a time, paddy was cultivated on the banks of the River Danube. In Sanskrit, ‘dhara’ means flow and ‘am’ means mighty and the name of the River Amu Darya is a corrupt of Sanskrit ‘am + dhara’ and similarly, the name of the River Syr Darya is a corrupt of Sanskrit ‘Sri + dhara’. Scholars also agree that the name of the River Nera in Yugoslavia was derived from Sanskrit ‘neera’ (water); River Odra in Poland from Sanskrit ‘ardra’ (wet); the Siberian river Uda from Sanskrit ‘udaka’ (water) and the river Vah in Czechoslovakia from Sanskrit ‘vah’ (to flow).

Most of the scholars agree that the Greek epics Iliad and Odyssey are nothing but imitations of Ramayana. The prime story of Ramayana is abduction of Sita by Ravana and liberating her from captivity by Rama. Similarly the Greek epics narrate abduction and liberation of Helen, the Queen of Troy.

How were the names of the celebrated Hellenic scholars derived? Scholars believe that Sanskrit ‘arya’ became ‘aristo’ in Greece and from this ‘aristo’ names like Aristotle, Aristarchus and English words like aristocrat, aristocracy etc have been derived. They also believe that Socrates was a corrupt of ‘Sukracharya’ or ‘Sukra’. In Sanskrit, ‘vidyapith’ means a place of learning and ‘vidyapith guru’ stands for a teacher or ‘acharya’. In Greece, this ‘vidyapith guru’ became simply ‘pith guru’, which after passage of time, became ‘pithgoras’ and from this ‘pithgoras’, finally the English word Pythagoras was derived.

So, it becomes evident that the scholars who believed to have authored the Greek or Hellenic civilization, were, in fact, Kshatriya immigrants from India. And hence it can safely be said that, India is the mother of civilization, which is now known as Hellenic or Greek civilization. Or in broader sense, India is the mother of today’s Western civilization.

 For Further Reading: 

  • India in Greece, By E. Pococke.
  • The History of Greece, By G. Gronte. 
  • The Social Conditions of the Greeks, By Rev. J. B. Ottley.
  • Sanskrit and Modern Medical Vocabulary, By A. Bagchi.